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Copyright, 1897, 1898, by S. S. McClure Co. 
Copyright, 1 899, by Doubleday & McClure Co. 








REAT oaks from little acorns grow." How big 
results may flow from small beginnings is typi- 
cally illustrated by the possibilities of the 
present volume. It began with the bare know- 
ledge that there was, once upon a time, a man 
by the name of Browere, who had some facility in making 
masks from the living face. This was the seed that was des- 
tined to expand into the present publication. To tell how this 
germ grew, would be to anticipate the recital in the following 
pages ; but the lively interest shown by the wide public and by 
the narrow public, the people and the artistic circle, in the 
articles upon Browere's Life Masks of Great Americans, con- 
tributed by the writer to "McClure's Magazine," has called for 
a more expanded history of the artist and his work, for which 
fortunately there is ample material. 


To the grandchildren of Browere, who have reverently pre- 
served the works of their ingenious ancestor and generously- 
placed them at my disposal for reproduction, are due the heartiest 
thanks ; and in view of the possibility of the dispersal of the 
collection, it should be secured, en bloc, by the Government of 
the United States, and the most important of the life masks 
cast in imperishable bronze. 

Charles Henry Hart. 

Philadelphia, October i, 1898. 



Proem ........ ix 

i The Plastic Art i 

ii The Plastic Art in America ..... 4 

in John Henri Isaac Browere . . . . 12 

iv The Captors of Andre . . . . . .28 

v Discovery of the Life Mask of Jefferson . . 36 

vi Three Generations of Adamses . . . 50 

vii Mr. and Mrs. Madison ..... 56 

viii Charles Carroll of Carrollton . . . .60 

ix The Nation's Guest, La Fayette . . . 63 

x De Witt Clinton . . . . . -7° 

xi Henry Clay ....... 73 

xii America's Master Painter, Gilbert Stuart . . 76 

xiii David Porter, United States Navy ... 93 

xiv Richard Rush . . . . . . .98 

xv Edwin Forrest . . . . . . 162 

xvi Martin Van Buren . . . . . .104 

xvii Death Mask of James Monroe . . . 109 

Addendum to Chapter viii . . . . . 1 1 5 

List of Plates 

Thomas Jefferson, Profile . . . Frontispiece _ 


John H. I. Browere . . . . . . .12 

John Paulding ....... 28 

Isaac Van Wart . . . . . . 32 

David Williams ....... 34 

Thomas Jefferson ....... 40 

John Adams ........ 50 

John Quincy Adams . . . . . 52 

Charles Francis Adams . . . . . . 54 

James Madison . . . . . . -5° 

"Dolly" Madison 58 

Charles Carroll ........ 60 

Marquis de La Fayette . . . . . . 66 

DeWitt Clinton ....... 70 

Henry Clay ........ 74 

Gilbert Stuart ........ 78 

David Porter ....... 94 

xiv List of Plates 

Richard Rush . 

Edwin Forrest .... 

Martin Van Buren . 

James Monroe's Death Mask . 


. 98 


. 104 

I 12 


The Plastic Art 

HE plastic art, which is the art of modelling in 
the round with a pliable material, was with little 
doubt the earliest development of the imitative 
arts. To an untrained mind it is a more obvi- 
ous method, of copying or delineating an object, 
than by lines on a flat surface. Its origin is so early and so 
involved in myths and legends, that any attempt to ascribe its 
invention, to a particular nation or to a particular individual, 
is impossible. Its earliest form was doubtless monumental. 
Frequent passages in the Scriptures show this, and that the 
Hebrews practised it, as did also their neighbors the Phoeni- 
cians ; while excavations have revealed the early plastic monu- 
ments of the Assyrians. For more than two thousand years 
the Egyptians are known to have associated the plastic arts 
with their religious worship, but, being bound within priestly 

2 Life Masks 

rules, made no perceptible progress from its beginning ; yet 
these crude monuments of ancient Egypt are now the records 
of the world's history of their time. 

Associated with architecture from its earliest development, it 
has, in its narrower form of sculpture, been called, not inaptly, 
" the daughter of architecture." Indeed, in the remains of 
ancient monuments, the two arts are so intimately combined, 
that architecture is frequently subordinated to sculpture, par- 
ticularly in the buildings of the middle ages, where they appear 
as very twin sisters, sculpture often supplying structural parts 
of the erection. 

Among the Greeks the plastic art existed from time im- 
memorial, and among them attained its highest proficiency and 
skill. That they exceeded all others in this art goes without 
saying; their familiarity with the human form enabling them 
to portray corporal beauty with a delicacy and perfection, that 
no society, reared in any other situation or surrounded by other 
influences, could ever attain. With them beauty was the chief 
aim, it having in their eyes so great a value that everything 
was subservient to it. As has been said, " It was above law, 
morality, modesty, and justice." Greek art, as we know it, 
began about 600 b. c. ; but it did not arrive at its perfection 
until the time of Pericles, a century and a half later, in the 
person of Pheidias, who consummately illustrates its most strik- 
ing characteristics — the simplicity with which great efforts are 

Life Masks 3 

attained, and the perfect harmony which obtains between the 
desire and the conception, the realization and the execution. 
The frieze of the Parthenon, which easily holds the supreme 
place among known works of sculpture, is ample proof of this. 
It was a Greek of the time of Alexander the Great, in the 
century following that of Pheidias, who invented the art of 
taking casts from the human form. This honor, according to 
Pliny, belongs to Lysistratus, a near relative of the famous 
sculptor Lysippus, who made life casts with such infinite skill 
as to produce strikingly accurate resemblances. The art of 
making life casts did not, however, come into general use until 
the middle of the fifteenth century, when Andrea Verocchio, the 
most noted pupil of Donatello, and the instructor of Perugini 
and of Leonardo da Vinci, followed it with such success as to 
lead Vasari, Bottari, and others to ascribe to him its invention. 
It was this art of taking casts from the human form, so suc- 
cessfully followed in this country, nearly four hundred years 
later, by John Henri Isaac Browere, that has afforded the 
occasion for the present work. 


The Plastic Art in America 

IEFORE entering upon the subject of Browere 
and his life masks, it seems proper, if not ac- 
tually necessary, to take a survey of the devel- 
opment of the plastic art in that part of America 
now embraced within the limits of the United 
States, prior to the time of Browere, so as to understand what 
influences may have been exerted upon him in the direction of 
his career. This becomes the more important from the fact 
that while there have appeared in print, from time to time, 
numerous references to this subject, not a single consideration 
of the topic, known to the writer, has presented the facts with 
that accuracy without which all deductions must be in vain. 
From the present consideration the plastic work of the abo- 
rigines is necessarily excluded, as it belongs to another and 
very different department of study ; this having to do with a 
branch of the fine arts, and that with a phase of archaeology. 


Life Masks 5 

Prior to the war of the Revolution, while there were among 
us several painters exercising their art, both those of foreign 
and those of native birth, no note has come down of any 
modeller or sculptor in our midst, save one — a very remark- 
able woman named Patience Wright. It may be that we had 
no need for the sculptor's art. We were mere colonies with- 
out call for statues or for monuments. It is true there was 
the leaden figure of King George, on the Bowling Green, in 
New York ; but it came from the mother country, and soon 
furnished bullets for her rebellious sons. Likewise came 
from across the ocean the odd bits of decoration intended as 
architectural aids in the building of old Christ Church, in 
Philadelphia, and of a few other noted buildings. But our 
first practitioner of the plastic art was, as has been said, a 

Patience Lovell was born in Bordentown, New Jersey, of 
Quaker parentage, in 1725, and died in London, March 23, 
1786. When twenty-three she married Joseph Wright, who, 
twenty-one years later, left her a widow with three children. 
She had early shown her aptitude for modelling, using dough, 
putty, or any other material that came in her way ; and, being 
left by her husband unprovided for, she made herself known 
by her small portraits in wax, chiefly profile bas-reliefs. In 
1772, she sought a wider field for her abilities by removing 
to London, where for many years she was the rage, not only 

6 Life Masks 

for her plastic work, but for her extraordinary conversational 
powers, which drew to her all the political and social leaders 
of the day. By this means she was kept fully advised as to 
the momentous events transpiring relative to the colonies; and 
being on terms of familiar intercourse with Doctor Franklin 
(whose profile she admirably modelled, it being afterward 
reproduced by Wedgwood), she communicated her informa- 
tion regularly to him, as shown by her numerous letters pre- 
served in his manuscript correspondence. 

Mrs. Wright had a piercing eye, which seems to have pene- 
trated to the very soul of her sitters, and enabled her to read 
their inner-selves and fix their characters in their features. 
Of her three children, one daughter married John Hoppner, 
the eminent portrait-painter ; another, Elizabeth Pratt, fol- 
lowed her mother's profession of modelling small portraits in 
wax ; and the son, Joseph, we shall have occasion to mention 
on a subsequent page. Some idea may be gathered of the 
meritorious quality of Mrs. Wright's work from the fact that 
she modelled in wax a whole-length statue of the great 
Chatham, which, protected in a glass case, was honored with 
a place in Westminster Abbey. Although Patience Wright 
never aspired to what is recognized as high art, still her abilities 
were of a high order, and her career is a most interesting one 
to follow and reflect upon, as she was the first native Ameri- 
can, of American parentage, to follow the art of modelling as 

Life Masks 7 

a profession. Her knowledge must have been wholly self- 
acquired, and in an environment not conducive to the devel- 
opment of an artistic temperament. 

Mrs. Wright is not known to have essayed sculpture, or to 
have worked in any resisting material, so that the first native 
American sculptor was William Rush. He was born in Phila- 
delphia, July 4, 1756, being fourth in direct descent from John 
Rush, who commanded a troop of horse in Cromwell's army, 
and, having embraced the principles of the Quakers, came to 
Pennsylvania the year following the landing of William Penn. 
From the emigrant John Rush was also descended, in the fifth 
generation, the celebrated Benjamin Rush, physician and politi- 
cian, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
The father of William was Joseph Rush, who married, at Christ 
Church, Philadelphia, September 19, 1750, Rebecca Lincoln, 
daughter of Abraham Lincoln, of Springfield Township, now 
in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. She was of the same fam- 
ily as Abraham Lincoln, the martyr President of the United 
States. I am thus minute in tracing the ancestry of William 
Rush, in order to establish and place upon record, beyond a 
question or doubt, that he was the first American sculptor by 
birth and parentage, and thus set at rest, the claim, so fre- 
quently made, that this honor belongs to John Frazee, 1 a man 
not born until 1790. 

1 " Schools and Masters of Sculpture," by A. G. Radcliffe, 1894. 

8 Life Masks 

Rush served in the army of the Revolution, and it was not 
until after peace had settled on the land that he seems to 
have turned his attention to art. He soon became noted for 
the life-like qualities he put into the figureheads, for the prows 
of ships, he was called upon to carve, and so noted did these 
works become, that many orders came to him from Britain, for 
figureheads for English ships. The story is told that when a 
famous East Indiaman, the Ganges, sailed up that river, to 
Calcutta, with a figure of a river-god, carved by Rush, at its 
prow, the natives clambered about it as an object of adoration 
and of worship. Benjamin H. Latrobe, the noted architect, 
in a discourse before the Society of Artists of the United States, 
in 1 8 1 1 , says, speaking of Rush: "His figures, forming the 
head or prow of a vessel, place him, in the excellence of his 
attitudes and actions, among the best sculptors that have ex- 
isted ; and in the proportion and drawing of his figures he is 
often far above mediocrity and seldom below it. There is a 
motion in his figures that is inconceivable. They seem rather 
to draw the ship after them than to be impelled by the vessel. 
Many are of exquisite beauty. I have not seen one on which 
there is not the stamp of genius." 

Rush was a man of warm imagination and of a lively ideal- 
ity. These are shown by his figures symbolical of Strength, 
Wisdom, Beauty, Faith, Hope, and Charity, carved by him for 
the Masonic Temple; by his figures of "Praise" and "Ex- 

Life Masks 9 

altation," two cherubim encircled by glory, in St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church ; and by his " Christ on the Cross," carved 
for St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church. His best-known 
work is his whole-length statue of Washington, carved in 
1815, from recollection, by the aid of Houdon's bust, which 
it closely resembles, now in the old State-house, or Indepen- 
dence Hall, Philadelphia. Another noted work of his, from 
Miss Vanuxem, a celebrated Quaker City belle, having posed 
for the model, is the graceful figure of a nymph, with a swan, 
located upon a rocky perch opposite the wheel-house at 
Fairmount water-works, Philadelphia. 

Beside carving in wood, Rush modelled in clay, and his por- 
trait-busts have always been recognized as truthful and satis- 
factory likenesses. The bust most commonly seen of Lafay- 
ette is his work. William Rush died in the city of his birth 
on the seventeenth day of January, 1833 ; an< ^ considering the 
era in which he lived and its uncongenial atmosphere, his 
achievement is most noteworthy and commendable. 

Twelve days after the birth of Rush, Joseph Wright came 
into the world, inheriting from his mother her artistic tem- 
perament. At sixteen he accompanied the family to England, 
and received instruction from Benjamin West and from his 
brother-in-law, Hoppner. He returned to America late in 
1782, bringing a letter of commendation from Franklin to 
Washington. In 1783, he painted a portrait of Washington 

io Life Masks 

from life, at Rocky Hill, New Jersey, and the next year was 
permitted to make a cast of Washington's face, which is said 
to have been broken irreparably in removing from the skin, 
— a story the veracity of which may be akin to that in regard 
to Browere's mask of Jefferson, hereafter to be told. However 
this may be, Wright made a bust of Washington, for which 
Congress paid him "233I/5 dollars," and also modelled in 
wax a laureated profile portrait of Washington, which is of 
both artistic and historical value. Wright died in Philadelphia, 
during the yellow fever epidemic of December, 1793, and 
his bust, by his friend Rush, whom he is said to have in- 
structed in clay modelling, belongs to the Academy of the 
Fine Arts, at Philadelphia. 

Patience Wright, her son Joseph, and William Rush are the 
only native Americans that we know to have worked at the 
plastic art during the period we have limited for this review; 
and thus John Frazee, who claimed to be, and therefore is 
commonly credited with being, the first native American 
sculptor of American parentage, need not be considered ; for he 
was only two years old when Browere was born, and therefore 
can have had no part in influencing Browere's career. 

There were, however, two foreigners who certainly did 
exercise a decided influence upon art in America, and cannot 
properly be omitted from any consideration of the causes that 
helped the plastic art onward in these United States. Both 

Life Masks 1 1 

of them were men of commanding ability and importance in 
sculpture. One was the eminent French statuary Houdon, 
who visited this country in 1785, to prepare himself to produce 
his famous statue of Washington ; and the other, the not much 
less able Italian, Giuseppe Ceracchi, who came here, in 1791, 
for love of freedom, and lived among us about four years. 
Ceracchi's plan for an elaborate monument to commemorate 
the American Revolution, which was warmly taken up by 
Washington and members of the cabinet, and received the 
consideration of Congress, made his artistic proclivities better 
known, and gave the subject a wider range than the limited 
scope of Houdon's work. Yet the influence of both these 
eminent devotees of the plastic art left, without doubt, a strong 
impression upon the minds of the people — an impression con- 
stantly refreshed by the sight of their works, which helped to 
create a healthy atmosphere for the development of a taste 
among us for the plastic art. 

Note. John Dixey, an Irishman about whom little is 
known, and John Eckstein, a German by birth and an Eng- 
lishman by adoption and education, settled here toward the 
close of the last century, and both did some work in modelling 
and in stone-cutting ; but they were of mediocre ability, and 
left no impression upon the artistic instinct of the people. 


yohn Henri Isaac Browere 

(HAT one generation fails to appreciate, and 
therefore decries and sneers at, a subsequent 
one comprehends and applauds. It is con- 
spicuously so in discovery, in science, in poe- 
try, and in art ; so much depends upon the 
point of view and the environment of the observed and of the 
observer. Were these remarks not true, the very remarkable 
collection of busts from life masks, taken at the beginning of 
the second quarter of the present century, by John Henri Isaac 
Browere, almost an unknown name a year ago, would not 
have been hidden away until their recent unearthing. The 
circumstances that led to their discovery are as curious as that 
the busts should have been neglected and forgotten for so long. 
John Henri Isaac Browere, the son of Jacob Browere and 
Ann Catharine Gendon, was born at No. 55, Warren Street, 


Life Masks 1 3 

New York city, November 18, 1792, and died at his house 
opposite the old mile-stone, in the Bowery, in the city of his 
birth, September 10, 1834, and was buried in the Carmine 
Street Churchyard. He was of Dutch descent, one of those 
innumerable claimants of heirship to Anneke Jans, through 
Adam Brouwer, of Ceulen, who came to this country and 
settled on Long Island, in 1642. Adam Brouwer's name was 
really Berkhoven, but the name of his business, Brouwer or 
Brewer, became attached to him, so that his descendants have 
been transmitted by his trade-name, and thus, as is often the 
case, a new surname introduced. His second son, Jacob Adam 
Brouwer, or Jacob son of Adam the Brewer, married Annefje 
Bogardus, granddaughter of Reverend Edward Bogardus and 
Anneke Jansen (corrupted to Jans) ; and among the most per- 
sistent pursuers of the intangible fortune of Anneke Jans has 
been the family of Browere. 

John Browere was entered as a student at Columbia Col- 
lege, but did not remain to be graduated, owing doubtless to 
his early marriage, on April 30, 181 1, to Eliza Derrick, of 
London, England. He turned his attention to art and became 
a pupil of Archibald Robertson, the miniature-painter, who 
came to this country from Scotland, in 1791, with a commis- 
sion from David Stuart, Earl of Buchan, to paint, for his gallery 
at Aberdeen, a portrait of Washington. Later on, Archibald 
Robertson, with his brother Alexander, opened at No. 79, 

14 Life Masks 

Liberty Street, New York, the well-known Columbian Acad- 
emy, where, for thirty years, these Scotchmen maintained a 
school, for the instruction of both sexes in drawing and in 
painting, and where Vanderlyn, Inman, Cummings, and other 
of the early New York artists, profited by their training. At 
the present time, when miniature-painting is again coming 
into vogue, it is interesting to reflect that the letters which 
passed between Archibald Robertson in this country, and his 
brother Andrew in Scotland, form the best treatise that can 
be found upon the charming art of painting in little. These 
letters, after having remained in manuscript for the better part 
of a century, have recently been given to the public, in a 
charming volume of " Letters and Papers of Andrew Robert- 
son," edited by his daughter, Miss Emily Robertson, of 
Lansdowne Terrace, Hampton Wick, England. 

Determined to improve himself still further, Browere ac- 
cepted the offer of his brother, who was captain of a trading- 
vessel to Italy, to accompany him abroad ; and for nearly two 
years the young man travelled on foot through Italy, Austria, 
Greece, Switzerland, France, and England, diligently studying 
art and more especially sculpture. Returning to New York, 
he began modelling, and soon produced a bust of Alexander 
Hamilton, from Archibald Robertson's well-known miniature 
of the Federal martyr, which was pronounced a meritorious 
attempt to produce a model in the round from a flat surface. 
Being of an inventive turn, he began experimenting to obtain 

Life Masks 15 

casts from the living face in a manner and with a compo- 
sition different from those commonly employed by sculptors. 
After many trials and failures, he perfected his process, with 
the superior results shown in his work. 

Browere's first satisfactory achievement was a mask of his 
friend and preceptor, Robertson, and his second was that of 
Judge Pierrepont Edwards, of Connecticut. But the most im- 
portant of his very early works was the mask of John Paulding, 
the first to die of the captors of Andre ; and this mask, made in 
1 8 17, was followed later by masks of Paulding's coadjutors, 
Williams and Van Wart ; so that we owe to Browere's nimble 
fingers the only authentic likenesses we have of these conspicu- 
ous patriots of the Revolution. 

Browere wrote verse and painted pictures in addition to his 
modelling, and, in the spring of 1821, made an exhibition at 
the old gallery of the American Academy of the Fine Arts, 
in Chambers Street, New York, which called forth the follow- 
ing card from his early instructor, Robertson, who was one 
of the directors of the Academy. It is interesting, notwith- 
standing the unconscious partiality one is apt to have for a 
former pupil, and is addressed: 

To the American Public. 

Having for many years been intimately acquainted with 
John H. I. Browere, of the City of New York, I deem it a 

1 6 Life Masks 

duty which I owe to him as an artist, and to the public as 
judges, to say that from my own observation of his works both 
as a painter, poet, and sculptor, I think him endowed with a 
great genius by nature and first talents by industry. This my 
opinion, his works lately exhibited in the Gallery of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Fine Arts, New York, fully justify and is 
amply corroborated by all, who with unprejudiced eye, view 
the works of his hand. Archibald Robertson. 

New York, May 21, 1821. 

It was left, however, for "The Nation's Guest" to lift 
Browere's art into prominence. At the request of the New 
York city authorities, Lafayette permitted Browere, in July 
of 1825, to make a cast of his face. This was so successful 
that from this time on, Browere was devoted to making casts 
of the most noted characters in the country's history, who were 
then living, with the purpose of forming a national gallery 
of the busts of famous Americans. He intended to have them 
reproduced in bronze, and devoted years of labor and the ex- 
penditure of much money to the furtherance of his scheme. 
He wrote to Madison : " Pecuniary emolument never has been 
my aim. The honor of being favored by my country biases 
sordid views." In 1828 he wrote to the same: "I have ex- 
pended $12,087 in the procuration of the specimens I now 

Life Masks 17 

have." These included masks of Presidents John and John 
Quincy Adams, Jefferson, and Madison, and later was added 
that of Van Buren ; Charles Carroll of Carrollton ; Lafayette ; 
De Witt Clinton; Generals Philip Van Cortlandt, Alexander 
Macomb and Jacob Brown; Commodore David Porter; Secre- 
tary of the Navy Samuel L. Southard of New Jersey ; and 
Secretary of the Treasury Richard Rush of Pennsylvania ; 
Justice of the United States Supreme Court Philip Pendleton 
Barbour; and the great commoner, Henry Clay; Doctors 
Samuel Latham Mitchill, Valentine Mott, and David Hosack ; 
Edwin Forrest and Tom Hilson, the actors; Charles Francis 
Adams and Philip Hone; Thomas Addis Emmet and Doctor 
Cooper of South Carolina; Colonel Stone and Major Noah, 
of newspaper notoriety; Dolly Madison and Francis Wright; 
Gilbert Stuart, Paulding, Williams, and Van Wart; and other 
personages favorably known in their day, but who have 
slipped out of the niche of worldly immortality, so that even 
their names fail to awaken a recollection of themselves. Such 
is the mutability of fame. 

The time, however, was not ripe for the public patronage 
of the Fine Arts. There was, too, a feeling abroad that it 
savored of monarchy and favored classes, to perpetuate men 
and deeds by statues and monuments. Another cause that 
hampered Browere was the lack of protection accorded to 
such works. He complains to Madison : " I regret to say that 

1 8 Life Masks 

as yet no law has been passed to protect modelling and sculp- 
ture, and therefore I have been hindered from completing the 
gallery, fearful of having the collection pirated." So dis- 
heartened did he become with the little interest shown in his 
project and the work he had accomplished for it, that at one 
time he contemplated visiting Panama, and presenting the 
busts of the more prominent subjects to the republics of South 
America, in order to incite them to further efforts for freedom. 
Finally he was forced to abandon his scheme of a national 
gallery, owing to want of support, and the direct opposition — 
"jealous enmity," Browere calls it — of his brother artists, the 
old American Academy faction led by Colonel Trumbull, and 
the new National Academy followers led by William Dunlap. 
They maligned his pretensions because he was honest enough 
to call his method for accomplishing what he attempted "a 
process." Surely, judging from results, it was superior to any 
other known method of obtaining a life mask, and it seems 
most unfortunate that his "process" has to be counted among 
"the lost arts"; for neither he nor his son, who was acquainted 
with both the composition and the method of applying it, has 
left a word of information on the subject. When the public 
press attacked Browere and his method for the rumored mal- 
treatment of President Jefferson, he replied : " Mr. Browere 
never has followed and never will follow the usual course, 
knowing it to be fallacious and absolutely bad. The manner 

Life Masks 19 

in which he executes portrait-busts from life is unknown to all 
but himself, and the invention is his own, for which he claims 
exclusive rights, but it is infinitely milder than the usual 
course." That his method of taking the mask was accom- 
plished without discomfort to the subject is fully attested by 
the number of persons who submitted to it, as also by the 
many certificates given by Jefferson, Adams, Madison, Lafay- 
ette, Gilbert Stuart, and others to that effect. 

In the following letter from Browere to Trumbull it will 
be seen the writer does not attempt to conceal his feelings of 
resentment : 

New York, 12 July, 1826. 
Sir : 

The very illiberal and ungentleman-like manner in which 
Col. Trumbull treated the execution, &c, of my portrait-busts 
of Ex-President Adams and Honorable Charles Carroll with 
the statue of Ex-President Jefferson, late displayed in the ban- 
quetting hall of the Hon. Common Council of New York, 
has evidenced a personal ill-will and hostility to me that I shall 
not pass over in silence. The envy and jealousy inherent in 
your nature and expressed in common conversations intimate 
to me a man of a perverse and depraved mind. 

Rest assured, Sir, I fear not competition with you as a por- 
trait or historic painter; I know your fort, and your failings. 
To convince you that I know somewhat of the Arts of Design, 

20 Life Masks 

I shall immediately commence an analysis of your four pictures 
painted for Congress, and shall endeavor therein to refer to 
each and every figure plagiarized from English and other 
prints. Your assertion to me that you made your portraits 
therein to correspond with their characters, will assuredly go 
for as much as they deserve. In my opinion, ideal likenesses 
ought not to be palmed on a generous public for real ones. 

Remember what was said on the floor of Congress in ref- 
erence to your four celebrated pictures : " Instead of being 
worth $32,000 they were not worth 32 cents." In remem- 
bering this remember that " nemo me impune lacessit." And 
by attending to your own concerns you will retain a reputa- 
tion or name of being an able artist and not a slanderer. 

Browere, Sculptor. 

Colonel Trumbull has endorsed this letter : "Browere. Poor 
ma?i ! too much vanity hath made him mad." 

However, from a letter written three years later to the 
Directors of the American Academy of the Fine Arts, and " Fa- 
vored by Col. Trumbull," it would appear that the two artists 
had healed their differences ; but Browere's feeling of resent- 
ment toward the National Academy of Design knew no abate- 
ment. He was kept out of the National Academy by Dunlap, 
who also ignored him in his malevolent and unreliable "His- 

Life Masks 21 

tory of the Arts of Design in the United States." The cause 
for this, as stated by Browere's son, was that before Browere 
had ever met Dunlap he was asked his opinion of Dunlap's 
painting of " Death on the Pale Horse," then on public exhi- 
bition. He replied: "It 's a strong work, but looks as if it 
were painted by a man with but one eye." This remark was 
reported to Dunlap, who actually had but one eye. He was 
mortally offended at the sculptor's insight, and became his un- 
dying enemy. Browere wrote to the Academy as follows : 

New York, 31 July, 1829. 
Gentlemen : 

For several years past I have strictly devoted myself to the 
profession of the liberal arts and flatter myself that my efforts 
have not been detrimental to their interests. The reason why 
or wherefore I, an American artist, bearing with me an un- 
blemished moral reputation, should have been selected for 
exclusion by both the American Academy of Fine Arts, as well 
as the self-denominated Academy of Design, appears mysteri- 
ous and illiberal, and not in accordance with the principles of 
religion or democracy. Had not an enthusiastic love of and 
devotion to the Fine Arts guided my reason, at this day I 
should have become one of the most inveterate enemies to 
both institutions. Philosophy has made me what I now am, 
viz., the sincere friend of man and admirer of the works of 

22 Life Masks 

his hands. As such I have, — written injuries as sand — favors 
on the tablet of memory. 

As one of the great body of artists of America I deem it an 
incumbent duty to advance the beauteous arts by all honorable 
means, and to chastise arrogance, presumption, ignorance, and 
wilful malevolence. With chagrin I have viewed the sinister 
and aristocratical proceedings of the National Academy, and 
the ill results that must eventually follow its longer continu- 
ance, and therefore have publicly deprecated its wickedness. 
As one of the regenerators of the old or American Academy 
of Fine Arts, I now make bold in saying to its directors a few 
things, which if duly weighed and followed must result favor- 
ably to its vitality and best interests, and be the medium of 
establishing the reputation of artists on firm and lasting basis, 
viz. : by collecting around the American Academy and with 
it all the genius and talent in the arts of design which our 
country possesses and creating a fund sufficient to all its wants 
and expenditures. 

Already, twenty-five artists of respectability of this city 
await one effort of the American Academy to reestablish its 
original standing and reputation, and they will join heart and 
hand to oppose the Academy of Design (truly so called) by 
every work of their hands done and to be done. The one 
effort alluded to is to procure at a reasonable rent say from 
800 to 1000 dollars per annum the second story of the large 

Life Masks 23 

and splendid building now erecting corner of Anthony Street 
and Broadway. The undersigned is perfectly well assured that 
from Si 000 to Si 500 per annum can be realized (exclusive of 
rent) from daily exhibitions of the works of living artists not 
in connection with the National Academy. He is fully satis- 
fied from late observations that twenty-five new pieces or 
paintings can be procured monthly, all of which may be pro- 
cured on loan for one month at least. This being the case 
the Academy must eventually and in a very short time sup- 
plant the puny efforts of a few National Esquires, a majority 
of whom are scarce entering their teens. 

The subscribing artist respectfully informs you that the 
exhibition of the rough specimens of his art, viz., "The In- 
quisition of Spain," at No. 315 Broadway, did positively 
realize to him, in eighteen months, Seven thousand and sixty- 
nine dollars. If, then, such an exhibition could realize such a 
sum, what would an exhibition of splendid historic and alle- 
goric subjects, with portraits, miniatures, and landscapes by our 
native artists, not realize under the guidance of such a respect- 
able board of directors as is that of the American Academy 
of Fine Arts ? 

The names of Trumbull, Vanderlyn, Frothingham, etc., 
alone would act as magic on a discriminating public, provided 
fair specimens of their talents be judiciously arranged for public 
inspection. Boston has done wonders this year in her Athe- 

24 Life Masks 

nasum. Why, then, should we, equally blessed with native 
talent, despair, and sit down in sack-cloth and ashes, when a 
single effort can make us her equal and rival ? Gentlemen, I 
am enthusiastic, and yet have maturely weighed each and every 
reason against your regeneration, and boldly assert more is for 
you than against you. The three preceding mentioned gen- 
tlemen are equal to, if not superior in talent to, any Boston 
can produce. Our portrait-painters generally bid fair to excel. 
All that is wanted is your help as a body corporate, your co- 
operation as lovers of the Fine Arts. Where, if you become 
extinct, shall we go to study the models of antiquity ? Alas ! 
we know of no other place wherein the experience of ages is 
collected, en masse, no place wherein to receive that instruc- 
tion so essential to a knowledge of our profession. Mr. 
Bowen, the proprietor, has offered to you through Colonel 
Trumbull, the room alluded to at a fair compensation ; it now 
rests with you to say for once and for all, "We will," or, "we 
will not continue the patrons of art." Wishing to yourselves 
individually, and collectively as a body corporate, health and 
peace, I remain, 

Gentlemen, truly your Friend in the Fine Arts, 

John H. I. Browere. 

No formal action is known to have been taken upon this 
communication ; but the antagonism plainly evident as existing 

Life Masks 25 

between the new Academy of Design and the old Academy 
of the Fine Arts, forms a lively chapter in the history of Amer- 
ican art. Full particulars of the strife are given in Dunlap's 
book and in Cummings's "Historic Annals of the National 
Academy of Design." But these accounts are from biased 
adherents of the new institution and bitter opponents of the 
old, so that, for a brief but philosophical and judicial consider- 
ation of the subject, one must turn to John Durand's sketch 
of Colonel Trumbull in the "American Art Review" for 1880. 

Browere died, after only a few hours' illness, of cholera ; and 
it is pathetic to picture the disappointed sculptor, on his death- 
bed, directing, as he did, that the heads should be sawed off 
the most important busts, and boxed up for forty years, at the 
end of which period he hoped their exhibition would elicit 
recognition for their merit and value as historical portraits 
from life. This directed mutilation was not made; but the 
busts never saw the light of day until the Centennial year, 
when a few of them were placed on exhibition in Philadel- 
phia. But not being connected with the national celebration, 
they were a mere side-show, and were not in a position to 
attract attention. Indeed, the fact of their exhibition was 
unheralded, and has only recently become known. 

Call Browere's work what one will, — process, art, or me- 
chanical, — the result gives the most faithful portrait possible, 
down to the minutest detail, the very living features of the 

26 Life Masks 

breathing man, a likeness of the greatest historical significance 
and importance. A single glance will show the marked differ- 
ence between Browere's work and the ordinary life cast by the 
sculptor or modeller, no matter how skilful he may be. 
Browere's work is real, human, lifelike, inspiring in its truth- 
fulness, while other life masks, even the celebrated ones by 
Clark Mills, who made so many, are dead and heavy, almost 
repulsive in their lifelessness. It seems next to marvelous how 
he was able to preserve so wonderfully the naturalness of ex- 
pression. His busts are imbued with animation; the individual 
character is there, so simple and direct that, next to the living 
man, he has preserved for us the best that we can have — a 
perfect facsimile. One experiences a satisfaction in contem- 
plating these busts similar to that afforded by the reflected 
image of the daguerreotype. Both may be "inartistic" in the 
sense that the artist's conception is wanting; but for historical 
human documents they outweigh all the portraits ever limned 
or modelled. 

Browere left a wife and eight children, his second child and 
eldest son, Alburtis D. O. Browere, inheriting the artistic 
temperament of the father. He was born at Tarrytown, 
March 17, 18 14, and died at Catskill, February 17, 1887. 
After his father's death, he entered the schools of the National 
Academy of Design, and, in 1841, gained the first prize 
of $ 1 00, in competition with twenty-four others, for his pic- 

Life Masks 27 

ture of "Canonicus Treating with the English," as detailed in 
Thatcher's "Lives of the Indians." Previous to this, when 
only eighteen years old, he was awarded a silver medal, by the 
American Institute in New York, "for the best original oil 
painting," the title of which has been forgotten. He painted 
several pictures with Rip Van Winkle as the subject, and among 
his contemporaries and friends was highly appreciated as an ar- 
tist and as a man. He went to California soon after the opening 
to the east of that El Dorado, where he remained several 
years, painting many pictures of mining scenes. It was he 
who added the draperies to the busts made from his father's 
life masks — an addition much to be regretted; but, on the 
other hand, it was his filial reverence that preserved these in- 
valuable human documents, and has permitted us to see and 
know how many of the great characters who have gone before 
really appeared in the flesh, how they actually looked when 
they lived and moved and had their being. 


The Captors of Andre 

HILE Arnold is handed down with exe- 
cration to future times, posterity will repeat 
with reverence the names of Van Wart, 
Paulding, and Williams." These words of 
Alexander Hamilton, written to John Lau- 
rens shortly after the taking of Andre, form a fitting text for 
the chapter introducing Browere's busts of those patriots. It 
is fitting, because of the varying winds that have blown over 
the subject, swaying public opinion first one way and then the 
other ; until finally the full prophecy of Hamilton is accepted 
as the right judgment of posterity. Of course, my comments 
refer only to the captors of Andre; there never has been but 
one judgment as to the execrated Arnold. 

It required more than a generation for any voice to let itself 

be heard questioning the sincerity and patriotism of the three 


Age 59 

Life Masks 29 

lads who brought Andre to justice. And then it was the 
voice of only one man, Colonel Tallmadge, who had come 
under Andre's winsome fascinations, while acting as officer of 
the guard over the unfortunate spy from his capture to his 
execution. The occasion for the unworthy onslaught of Tall- 
madge, was a resolution offered in the House of Representatives, 
at Washington, to increase the beggarly pension of $200 per 
annum, awarded, with a silver medal, by the Continental Con- 
gress, to each of the three, — Paulding, Williams, and Van 
Wart. Tallmadge opposed it, not upon the ground that these 
men had not done the deed history accords to them and thereby 
possibly saved the new nation, but because Andre, the captured 
spy, while in captivity, had told his keeper that they deceived 
him into believing they were British soldiers, and when he 
found they were not, but were American militiamen and he 
their prisoner, he could have bought his freedom if he had 
been weighted down with gold. Suppose this story of Andre, 
as retailed by Tallmadge, thirty-seven years after the happen- 
ing of the event, is accepted at its fullest value — what does it 
signify ? At best it is a mere surmise, hardly even the expres- 
sion of an opinion ; and that it was baseless is shown most 
emphatically by the express denial of each one of the captors, 
under oath, when Tallmadge made his ill-judged and unpatri- 
otic charge. British gold was ever present during the Revolu- 
tion to debauch patriots and make them traitors, acting upon 

30 Life Masks 

the doctrine of Sir Robert Walpole, that every man has his 
price ; therefore Andre surmised that three ragged, unpaid, 
militiamen would easily have yielded could they have seen the 
yellow glitter; but subsequent events clearly disprove that the 
prisoner could have bought his freedom. 

The fact is, such a halo of romance and supposed chivalry 
has garlanded itself over Andre, owing to his youth and 
charming personality, that the best judgments are warped and 
influenced, in his favor, when they take up a consideration of 
his unhappy fate. Yet his case was an aggravated one. He 
entered upon the errand of a spy with his eyes wide open to its 
dangers and its consequences. He was taken red-handed, and 
suffered the penalty of his daring, after a trial, not by his peers, 
but by his superiors. His suppliant plea that he was unwit- 
tingly betrayed within our lines by the very man with whom 
he knew he was holding unlawful communication, and that he 
should be protected by the word and passes of the traitor 
Arnold, are pathetic in their puerility ; yet his cause has not 
failed of advocates upon this plea. After all, it is merely the 
settling of a sentimental point in history, and the consensus 
of opinion is that Andre suffered justly and that posterity 
should "repeat with reverence the names of Van Wart, 
Paulding, and Williams." 

The truth is, there is too much unnecessary iconoclasm 
abroad in regard to historic characters. Where false repu- 

Life Masks 31 

tations have been built upon foundations laid by others, or 
impinge upon the honor due to another, it is meet and right 
that they should be exposed and honor be given to whom 
honor is due. But there is no such condition here ; it is a 
mere attempt to tarnish one of the most important acts of the 
American Revolution in its far-reaching consequences, so that it 
shall be deprived of some of its brilliancy. On the present 
question we can do no better than accept the judgment of 
Washington — a man never carried away by his feelings, but 
always calm, judicial, and just. He wrote to Congress : " I 
do not know the party that took Major Andre, but it is said 
that it consisted only of a few militia, who acted in such a 
manner upon the occasion as does them the highest honor and 
proves the?n to be men of great virtue. As soon as I know their 
names I shall take pleasure in transmitting them to Congress." 
And later, in forwarding the proceedings of the Board of War, 
to Congress, he writes : " I have now the pleasure to com- 
municate the names of the three persons who captured Major 
Andre and 'who refused to release hitn notwithstanding the most 
earnest importunities and assurances of a liberal reward on his 
part. Their names are John Paulding, David Williams, and 
Isaac Van Wart." 

The master spirit of the three captors seems to have been 
John Paulding, who was the first of them to die, as also the 
first to have his mask taken by Browere. Indeed, his bust is 

32 Life Masks 

from the earliest mask we have that Browere made, and is 
inscribed by the sculptor: "Made 1821 from the mould made 
in 1 8 17." The latter was the year of the Tallmadge episode, 
and Paulding, when in New York in connection with that 
affair, was taken, by Alderman Percy Van Wyck, to Browere's 
house at No. 315 Broadway, where the life mask was made. 

The attempt has also been made to throw discredit upon 
the service of the captors of Andre by underestimating their 
social position in the community in which they lived. This 
absurd but too common practice in a democracy like ours, 
where all men are supposed to be equal, can cut no figure here; 
for whatever may have been the station in life of Williams 
and Van Wart, who were kinsmen (the latter's mother and 
the former's father having been brother and sister), Paulding 
belonged to a family of consideration in his native State. 

John Paulding was born in New York city in 1758, and 
died in Staatsburg, Dutchess county, New York, February 18, 
1 81 8. His brother, William Paulding, represented Suffolk 
county in the first provincial congress that met in New York 
city, May 23, 1775 ; was a member of the New York Com- 
mittee of Safety, and commissary-general of the State troops. 
He, himself, served throughout the war of the Revolution, 
and was three times taken prisoner by the British, having 
escaped from his second capture only a few days before the 
adventure with Andre. His unswerving patriotism is therefore 

Age 66 

Life Masks 33 

established by his personal service. Paulding was the one 
who actually made the arrest by seizing the bridle of Andre's 
horse, and he was the leader and spokesman on the occasion. 
Nearly a decade after his death, the corporation of the city 
of New York caused a monument to be erected over his grave, 
at Peekskill, when his nephew, William Paulding, then Mayor 
of New York, made the dedicatory address. Rear-Admiral 
Hiram Paulding — who, at the time of his death, October 20, 
1 878, was senior officer in the United States navy — was his son, 
and Commander Leonard Paulding, who commanded the St. 
Louis, the first ironclad vessel in the United States navy, in the 
war of the rebellion, was his grandson ; while James Kirke 
Paulding, the collaborateur of Washington Irving, in the Sal- 
magundi papers, and Secretary of the Navy under President 
Van Buren, was his nephew. Surely this brief family history 
is sufficient to set at rest any ridiculous squabbling as to his 
respectability and position in the community. He very possi- 
bly wore the stigma of poverty, in which case his refusal to 
release Andre, " notwithstanding the most earnest impor- 
tunities and assurances of a liberal reward" only emphasizes 
him to have been, in the words of Washington, a man of 
" great virtue." 

Isaac Van Wart, who next followed Paulding to the grave, 
died at Mount Pleasant, New York, on May 23, 1828, having 
been born, in Greenburg, sixty-eight years before. He was the 

34 Life Masks 

youngest of the three captors. Van Wart was a West Chester 
farmer, and a staunch adherent to the cause of his country; 
and there is no more reason to throw doubt upon the purity 
of his motives in the great affair of his life than upon the mo- 
tives of Paulding, which are beyond questioning. His social 
position also seems to be established by the fact, that he was 
a brother of Abraham Van Wart, Adjutant in the Continental 
line, whose son Henry married the youngest sister of Washing- 
ton Irving. Van Wart's mask was made by Browere at Tar- 
rytown in 1826, and until its discovery by the writer there 
was no likeness of him known to be in existence. 

David Williams, the eldest and the last survivor of the three, 
was born in Tarrytown, October 21, 1754, dying near Living- 
stonville, August 2, 1 8 3 1 . He served under Montgomery in 
the expedition to Canada, and remained actively in the service 
until disabled by frozen feet. Many of the details of the 
capture of Andre that we have, are from Williams's sworn 
statement, made on the day following, when everything was 
perfectly fresh in his mind. He passed the closing years of 
his life on a farm in the Catskills, that had belonged to the 
leader of Shays's rebellion, and it is still in the occupancy of 
Williams's descendants. A monument has been erected to his 
memory, by the State of New York, near Schoharie Court 

Browere had great trouble in securing Williams's mask, 

Age 75 

Life Masks 35 

Twice he went by sloop and on foot for this purpose to the 
latter's home at Schoharie, only to find the veteran absent. 
Finally, in 1829, Williams visited Genera] Delavan, at Peeks- 
kill, and sent Browere word, whereupon the artist went thither 
and took the mask, the only portrait extant of the sturdy 

Therefore to Browere's art, — or "process," whichever one 
pleases, — we owe, among other causes for congratulation, the 
possession of the only authenticated likenesses of Paulding, 
Williams and Van Wart, the three pure and unyielding 
patriots who captured the unfortunate Andre, and who, "lean- 
ing only on their virtue and an honest sense of their duty, could 
not be tempted by gold." Thereby they saved Washington 
and his army from capture, and possibly preserved the infant 
nation from a return to servitude. Each one of them received 
the thanks of Congress, and from the State of New York a 
two-hundred-acre farm. " Vincit amor patriae." 


Discovery of the Life Mask\of ^Jefferson 

HAD been familiar, for years, with the tragic 
story told by Henry S. Randall, in his ponder- 
ous life of President Jefferson, 1 of how the ven- 
erated sage of Monticello, within a year of his 
decease, was nearly suffocated, by "an artist from 
New York," by name Browere, who had attempted to take a 
mask of his living features ; and how, in fear of bodily harm 
from the ex-President's irate black body-servant, " the artist 
shattered his cast in an instant," and was glad to depart quickly 
with the fragments which he was permitted to pick up. 

This unvarnished tale, copied word for word, was put into 
the mouth of Clark Mills, the sculptor, by Ben Perley Poore, 
and published by him, some years later, under the caption of 
" Jefferson's Danger." With these statements fixed in my 

i Randall's "Life of Jefferson," 1858, Vol. Ill, p. 540. 

Life Masks 37 

mind, I came across, while searching for information anent 
my article on the "Life Portraits of Thomas Jefferson," 1 a letter 
from James Madison to Henry D. Gilpin, written October 25, 
1827, in which Madison writes, respecting Jefferson's appear- 
ance, " Browere's bust in plaster, from his mode of taking it, 
will probably show a perfect likeness." 2 

I was struck by the utter inconsistency of Randall's circum- 
stantial account of the shattered cast, picked up in fragments, 
with Madison's pointed observations upon " Browere's bust," 
as being in existence fifteen months after Jefferson's death. 

The latter directly negatived the former. 

This made it both interesting and important to ascertain the 
exact status of the subject, by tracing it to and from the foun- 
tain source, a task I found comparatively easy through the 
calendars of Jefferson and Madison Papers, in the State De- 
partment, at Washington. From an examination of these 
manuscripts, together with the newspapers of the time, it was 
clearly to be seen that Mr. Randall's method of writing his- 
tory, was to accept and repeat irresponsible country gossip, 
rather than to turn to documents at his hand, that would ex- 
plain and refute the gossip. 

The existence at one time of the bust of Jefferson, from 
Browere's life mask, being thus established, the next and more 
difficult quest was to discover its whereabouts, if still extant. 

1 " McClure's Magazine," May, 1898. 2 " Madison Papers," Vol. Ill, p. 594. 

38 Life Masks 

I instituted a systematic search, that gained for me among 
my friends the sobriquet of Sherlock Holmes, and my per- 
sistency was finally rewarded not only by the discovery of 
this bust of Jefferson, but also of all the other busts that had 
remained in Browere's possession at the time of his death. 
They were in the custody of a granddaughter of the artist, 
on a farm near Rome, New York. 

The positive statement of Randall, frequently repeated by 
others, the last time unequivocally by Mr. Laurence Hutton, 
in his "Portraits in Plaster," that Browere's mask from Jeffer- 
son's face was destroyed, and the indisputable fact that the bust 
from the perfect mask exists and is here reproduced, cause the 
incidents connected with the taking of this original life mask, 
to have an importance that justifies recording them at length, 
so that there may remain no possibility for further question or 
doubt on the subject. My authorities are Jefferson, Madison 
and Browere, as preserved in their own autographs, in the 
State Department, at Washington. 

Thomas Jefferson was born in 1743 and died in 1826, on 
the semi-centennial of the adoption of the immortal instru- 
ment of which he is the recognized father. Through the 
intercession of President Madison, his friend, neighbor and 
successor in the chair of state, Jefferson consented, in Browere's 
words, " to submit to the ordeal of my new and perfect mode 
of taking the human features and form." For this purpose 

Life Masks 39 

Browere visited Monticello, on the fifteenth of October, 1825. 
At this time Jefferson was eighty-two years of age and was 
suffering the infirmities incident to his advanced years. Dur- 
ing the operation, he was attended by his faithful man-servant 
Burwell, who prepared him for " the ordeal," by removing all 
of his clothing to the waist, excepting his undershirt, from 
which the sleeves were cut. He was then placed on his back, 
and the material applied down to the waist, including both 
arms folded across the body. The entire procedure lasted 
ninety minutes, with rests every ten or fifteen minutes, during 
which rests Jefferson got up and walked about. The material 
was on Jefferson's face for eighteen minutes, and the whole of 
the mould of his features was removed therefrom in three min- 
utes. This was accomplished before the alarmed entrance of 
his granddaughters, the Misses Randolph, into the room. 
They were brought there by their brother, who had been 
peeping in at the window, and begging for admission, which 
was denied him. It was the exaggerated report of what 
young Randolph thought he saw, that induced the sudden 
entrance of his sisters, and this report found its way subse- 
quently into the local newspapers of Virginia, with the re- 
markable result indicated. 

The intrusion of the Randolphs into the room caused delay 
in removing other parts of the mould, and this did cause the 
venerable subject to feel a little faint and to experience some 

4o Life Masks 

other discomforts. But Browere remained at Monticello over- 
night, dining with Jefferson and the Randolphs, and chatting 
with his host through the evening until bed-time, which 
would scarcely have been the case had the artist nearly suffo- 
cated and otherwise maltreated his subject, so that for his 
safety, the cast had to be shattered to pieces. But we do not 
have to speculate and surmise. We have direct and unim- 
peachable proof to the contrary. 

The very day on which, according to Randall and his 
followers, the "suffocation" and "shattering" took place, 
Jefferson wrote : 

At the request of the Honorable James Madison and Mr. 
Browere of the city of New York, I hereby certify that Mr. 
Browere has this day made a mould in plaster composition 
from my person for the purpose of making a portrait bust and 
statue for his contemplated National Gallery. Given under 
my hand at Monticello, in Virginia, this 1 5th day of October, 
1825. Th: Jefferson. 

Four days later President Madison, who, with his wife, was 
Browere's next subject, writes: "A bust of Mr. Jefferson, taken 
by Mr. Browere from the person of Mr. Jefferson, has been 
submitted to our inspection and appears to be a faithful like- 
ness." That Jefferson did suffer some inconvenience, from 
the application of the wet material, is undeniable. Three 

Age 82 

Age 82 

Life Masks 41 

days after the taking of the mould he wrote to Madison : " I 
was taken in by Mr. Browere. He said his operation would 
be of about twenty minutes and less unpleasant than Houdon's 
method. I submitted without enquiry. But it was a bold 
experiment, on his part, on the health of an octogenary worn 
down by sickness as well as age. Successive coats of thin 
grout plastered on the naked head and kept there an hour, 
would have been a severe trial of a young and hale man." 

But the newspapers had gotten hold of the " suffocation " 
and " shattering " story, and any one familiar with the news- 
papers of that day knows what a scarcity of news there was. 
Therefore the press over the land laid the Virginia papers 
tribute for this bit of sensationalism. Richmond, Boston and 
New York vied with each other in keeping the ball moving. 
But "those teachers of disjointed thinking," as Dr. Rush called 
the public press, were getting too rabid for Browere, so he 
published, in the Boston "Daily Advertiser" of November 30, 
1825, a two-column letter, in which he calls the attack by the 
"Richmond Enquirer," the most virulent of his assailants, "a 
libel false in almost all its parts and which I am now determined 
to prove so by laying before the public every circumstance 
relating to that operation on our revered ex-president, Thomas 

A copy of this published letter Browere sent to Jefferson 
under cover of the following important but effusive epistle : 

42 Life Masks 

New York, May 20, 1826. 
Most Esteemed and venerable Sir : 

As the poet says " there are strings in the human heart 
which once touched will sometimes utter dreadful discord." 
Per the public vehicles of information, the ex-President has per- 
ceived the very illiberal manner in which my character and feel- 
ings have been treated, and that of those of his honor have been 
unintentionally wounded. Mine have been publickly assaulted, 
upbraided and lacerated. And why ? Because through the 
error of youth, I unwittingly, in a confidential letter to M. M. 
Noah, Esq., editor of the New York National Advocate, had 
written in a style either too familiar or that the whole of said 
letter (instead of extracts therefrom) had been made public. 
In my address to the Boston public, the ex-president will per- 
ceive I set down naught but facts. That I intended not to 
wound your feelings or those of the ladies at Monticello, I 
acknowledged the urbanity of Mr. Jefferson and the hospital- 
ity of his family. Possibly the ex-president is not aware that 
a young gentleman, one of his family, did, previous to my de- 
parture from Monticello, (the very afternoon of the day on 
which I took the bust) go to Charlottesville, and publickly 
declare I had almost killed Mr. Jefferson, first almost separat- 
ing the ears, cutting the skull and suffocating him. What 
were my feelings ? What ! would not any man of spirit and 
enterprise resent such assertions and rebut them ? I was in 

Life Masks 43 

this state of feeling when I indited the letter to M. M. 
Noah, which letter I fear has forfeited me your confidence 
and regard. But a letter confidential and therefore not to be 
attributed as malign or censorious. 

Your character I have always esteemed, and I now intend 
evidencing that regard by making a full-length statue of the 
" Author of the Declaration of American Independence," which 
(if the president be not in New York on the 4th of July next) 
I intend presenting for that day to the Honorable the Corpo- 
ration of New York, to be publickly exhibited to all who de- 
sire to view the beloved features of the friend of science and 
of liberty. 

The attitude of your statue will be standing erect; the left 
hand resting on the hip; the right hand extended and holding 
the unfolded scroll, whereon is written the Declaration of 
American Independence. If possible, History, Painting, Sculp- 
ture, Poetry and Fame will be attendant. The portrait busts 
of Washington, John Adams, Franklin, Madison, John Q. 
Adams, Lafayette, Clinton and Jay, will be on shields, hung 
on the column of Independence, surmounted with the figure 
of Victory. May you enjoy health, peace and competence. 
May the God of nature continue to shower down his choicest 
blessings on your head and finally receive you to himself is 
the prayer of your sincere friend, 

J. H. I. Browere. 

44 Life Masks 

This communication Jefferson acknowledged, within a month 
of his decease, in a letter of such ruling importance in this con- 
nection, as it settles the question forever, that I am glad of the 
opportunity to publish it in full. 

Monticello, June 6, '26. 

The subject of your letter of May 20, has attracted more 
notice certainly than it merited. That the opere to which 
it refers was painful to a certain degree I admit. But it was 
short lived and there would have ended as to myself. My 
age and the state of my health at that time gave an alarm to 
my family which I neither felt nor expressed. What may 
have been said in newspapers I know not, reading only a single 
one and that giving little room to things of that kind. I 
thought no more of it until your letter brot. it again to 
mind, but can assure you it has left not a trace of dissatisfac- 
tion as to yourself and that with me it is placed among the 
things which have never happened. Accept this assurance 

with my friendly salutes. 

Th : Jefferson. 

Notwithstanding this "very kind and consolatory letter," as 
Browere had good reason to call it, the report that the venera- 
ble Jefferson had been nearly suffocated and otherwise mal- 

Life Masks 45 

treated by the artist, was so widely circulated that Browere's 
career was seriously affected by it; and so much easier is it to 
disseminate error than truth, that his hopes were not fulfilled 
that the publication of Jefferson's letter would, as he wrote to 
Madison, "in some manner turn the current of popular preju- 
dice, which at present is great against my modus operandi." 

In acknowledging Jefferson's letter of the 6th, Browere 
writes concerning the statue : " On the very day of the receipt 
of yours, the 13 th inst., I had completed your full length 
statue (nudity) and to-morrow I intend, if spared, to commence 
dressing it in the costume you wore at the time of your de- 
livery of the Declaration of American Independence. Under- 
standing that your dress corresponded with that of Mr. 
Laurens, President of Congress in 1778, I have commenced 
the suit. But if Mr. Jefferson would condescend to give a 
full and explicit account of the form and colour of his dress, 
at that very interesting period, he will be conferring a particu- 
lar favor on me and on the whole American Nation. Dispatch 
in forwarding the same will be pleasing to the Honorable the 
Common Council of New York, for whom I am preparing 
your statue for the 4th of July 1826." 

An examination of such of the New York newspapers of 
the period as could be found, fails to reveal any mention of this 
remarkable, colored and habited, statue of Jefferson, our whole 
knowledge of which is derived from the letters of the artist. 

46 Life Masks 

It would seem to have belonged to the Eden Musee variety 
of freaks, from Browere's own description of it. Here is what 
he writes to Madison from New York, July 17, 1826: "You 
are aware that two months ago I tendered to the Common 
Council of New York, my services and those of my son to 
complete a full length figure or statue of Jefferson. The 
memorial was unanimously accepted and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Arts and Sciences, who would superintend its being 
placed in the Banqueting Room of the Common Council, on 
the approaching anniversary or jubilee. Without money and 
without power I was enabled in five weeks of unremitting 
exertions, to finish and place it in the Hall, exactly at the 
hour of the dissolution of Mr. Jefferson." It may not be un- 
amusing to read a description of his statue in the City Hall 

"His lofty and majestic figure standing erect; his mild blue 
and expressive eyes beaming with intelligence and good will 
to his fellow men. The scroll of the Declaration, which gave 
freedom to millions, clutched in his extended right hand, 
strongly contrasted with the decrepitude of his elder associate, 
the venerable John Adams, gave an effect to the whole which 
will not ever be forgotten here. His left hand resting on the 
hip, gave a carelessness yet dignified ease that pleased thou- 
sands. On his right hand was the portrait bust of the venera- 
ble Charles Carroll of Carrollton, like that of Adams, clothed 

Life Masks 47 

with white drapery. Beside and behind these figures were 
placed various flowers and shrubbery. Immediately over the 
head of the author of the Declaration of American Indepen- 
dence hovered the American Eagle; a civic crown suspending 
from his beak was ready to drop on the temples and crown 
with immortal honors the wisest and best of men. His like- 
ness is perfect. If the congratulations of Governor De Witt 
Clinton, His Honor the Mayor, the City authorities of New 
York and the general mass of reputable lives, can affix the seal 
of truth in likeness, rest assured the beloved features will not 
soon be forgotten. 

"Now should the University of Virginia desire to erect in 
marble or bronze a statue to the memory of its founder be 
pleased, Sir, to note that I will be ready at all times to com- 
plete such a work. Moreover that, should appropriate funds 
at this period be lacking, it matters not : I will furnish one 
and await the pleasure of the institution for pecuniary emolu- 
ment. All that would be required at first, would be a suffi- 
ciency to defray actual expenditures for materials and the 
indispensable requisites to the support of my young family. 
Should this proposition meet the approval of the visitors of the 
Virginia University and the citizens at large, a satisfactory 
answer will meet with my cordial thanks." 

Evidently the University of Virginia did not accept Brow- 
ere's proposition, as the only statue of its founder and architect, 

48 Life Masks 

now to be seen there is an extremely bad one by a sculptor 
named Gait; and no trace of Browere's curious work has up 
to the present time been found. Save for the truth of history, 
silence concerning it would seem to have been most expe- 
dient for Browere's reputation as a serious artist. 

Surely this story is as interesting as a romance, and but for 
fiction it might never have been told. How dare any man 
assume to write history and set down on his pages such state- 
ments, as did Randall about Browere's mask of the living Jef- 
ferson, without first exhausting every channel of inquiry and 
every means of search and research to ascertain the truth ? 
The material that I have drawn from was as accessible to Mr. 
Randall as it has been to me ; in fact, he claims to have used 
the Jefferson papers in his compilation. It is true we have 
acquired more exact and scientific methods of writing history 
than were in vogue when Randall wrote, a generation or more 
ago. Yet this will not excuse his positive misstatements and 
false assumptions. The existence of an opportunity for such 
severe criticism only serves to emphasize the great necessity of 
observing the inflexible rule : take nothing for granted and 
nothing at second hand, without the most careful investigation 
and scrutiny. If the standard of life's ordinary action should 
be the precept " Whatever is worth doing is worth doing 
well," with what intensified force does it apply to the writing 
of history ! Pains, infinite pains, are the requisites for good 

Life Masks 


work. Nothing meritorious is ever accomplished without hard 
labor. Toil conquers everything; without it, the result is at 
best uncertain. While it is some gratification to have set 
wrong right and done tardy justice to Browere's reputation, 
it is a far greater satisfaction to have rescued from oblivion 
and presented to the world his magnificent facsimile of the 
face and form of Thomas Jefferson. 


Three Generations of Adamses 

)HE allied families of Adams and Quincy are 
the only instances in this country, that present 
themselves to my mind, of hereditary ability 
~*fTUy) v^O^ manifesting itself and being recognized in the 
public service, for three and more generations. 
The Quincy family has done its work in local and more nar- 
row spheres than the Adamses; yet Josiah Quincy, Jr., of 
Boston Port Bill fame, and his son, bearing the same name, 
who for so many years was at the head of Harvard University, 
have had a wide field for the spread of their influence. But 
the Adams family is the only one that has given father and 
son to the Presidential chair, and father, son and grandson to 
the English mission. The series of double coincidences in 
the Adams family connected with missions to England and 
treaties with that power, is most curious. John Adams, just 


Age 90 

Life Masks 51 

after having served as a commissioner to arrange the treaty of 
peace that concluded the Revolutionary War, was made min- 
ister to the court of St. James ; his son John Quincy Adams, 
immediately after signing the treaty of Ghent, that concluded 
the war of 181 2-15, was appointed minister to the same 
court ; and his grandson, Charles Francis Adams, minister 
to England during the entire Civil War, took part in the 
treaty that disposed of the Alabama question. 

John Adams was born in 1735 and died in 1826. The 
coincidences in his career, parallel with events in the career of 
Jefferson, are very remarkable. They were both on the com- 
mittee of five to draft the Declaration of Independence ; they 
both signed that American Magna Charta; they both repre- 
sented this country in France ; they both became successively 
Vice-President and then President of these United States, being 
the only signers of the Declaration of Independence thus ele- 
vated to the chair of state ; and they both died, within a few 
hours of each other, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption 
of the Declaration of Independence. Is it possible that more 
curious historical parallels can be found in the lives of any 
two men ? 

From Monticello, the home of Jefferson, Browere journeyed 
to Quincy, the home of Adams, in order to secure a mask of 
the face of the distinguished nonagenarian. But the Virginian 
story of the maltreatment of Jefferson had gotten there before 

52 Life Masks 

him, and it was with difficulty that Browere could persuade 
Mr. Adams to submit. However, the old Spartan finally 
yielded, and submitted not only once but twice, as appears by 
his certificate: 

Quincy, Mass., Nov. 23, 1825. 

This certifies that John H. I. Browere of the city of New 
York, has yesterday and to-day made two Portrait bust moulds 
on my person and made a cast of the first which has been 
approved of by friends. John Adams. 

To this certificate, his son, Judge Thomas B. Adams, added 
a postscript : 

" I am authorized by the ex-President to say that the moulds 
were made on his person without injury, pain or incon- 

The bust from the mask of old John Adams is, next to that 
of Jefferson, the most interesting of Browere's works. I do 
not mean for the subject, but for its truthful realism. There 
is an unhesitating feeling of real presence conveyed by Brow- 
ere's busts that is given by no other likeness. They present 
living qualities and characteristics wanting in the painted and 
sculptured portraits of the same persons. Such a comparison 
is easily made in the instance of John Adams, for the same 


Age 58 

Life Masks 53 

year as that in which Browere made his life masks, Gilbert 
Stuart painted his famous portrait of "John Adams at the age 
of ninety"; and Browere's bust will bear comparison with 
Stuart's portrait. I must tell a story connected with the paint- 
ing of this portrait by Stuart, which, while a little out of place, 
especially as we have a chapter devoted to Gilbert Stuart, 
comes in better here than there. Stuart had painted a portrait 
of John Adams as a younger man. It is the familiar portrait 
of the great statesman by that artist. John Quincy Adams 
was desirous that Stuart should paint another of his father at 
the advanced age of ninety, and applied to the artist for the 
purpose. But Stuart was too old to go down to Quincy, and 
John Adams was too old to come up to Boston. Finally, 
Stuart agreed that he would go down to Quincy, for the pur- 
pose, if he were paid half of the price of the picture before 
he went. To this John Quincy Adams gladly assented, and 
Stuart went to Quincy and had the first sitting. Then John 
Quincy Adams could not get Stuart to go down for a second 
sitting, and, as his father was past ninety, he feared he might 
die before the picture was finished. He at last succeeded in 
getting Stuart to go down for a second sitting by paying him 
the balance of the price of the picture. Then the artist would 
not go down to finish it, and the only way John Quincy 
Adams got him to complete the portrait was by promising 
him, if he would make the journey and do the work, he would 

54 Life Masks 

pay him the agreed price over again. This is only one of 
many illustrations of the character of the greatest portrait- 
painter this country has produced, and the peer of any por- 
trait-painter who has ever lived. 

Browere broke his journey from Virginia to Massachusetts 
by a rest at the country's capital, and while there he took a 
mask of the ruling President, John Quincy Adams, and one 
of his young son, Charles Francis Adams. It was this young 
man who wrote to Browere as follows : 

Washington City, October [28], 1825. 

The president requests me to state to Mr. Browere that he 

will be able to give him two hours tomorrow morning at 

seven o'clock at his (Mr. Browere's) rooms on Pennsylvania 

Avenue. He is so much engaged at present that this is the 

only time he can conveniently spare for the purpose of your 

executing his portrait bust from life. 

C. F. Adams. 

John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United 
States, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, July 11, 1767, 
and died in the Speaker's room of the House of Representa- 
tives at Washington, February 28, 1848. He has been called 
the most cultivated occupant that the Presidential chair has 
ever had; but his administration was unimportant, and he per- 

Age 1 8 

Life Masks 55 

sonally was the most unpopular man who has yet achieved the 
high office. He seems to have anticipated Whistler in the 
"gentle art of making enemies." 

Not the least interesting of Browere's busts is the youthful 
head of Charles Francis Adams, made when Mr. Adams had 
just passed his eighteenth birthday, he having been born 
August 18, 1807, in Boston, where he died November 21, 
1886. The services of Mr. Adams to his country, as minister 
to England from 1861 to 1868, covering the entire period 
of the war between the States, can never be forgotten or over- 
estimated, and will remain among the foremost triumphs 
of American diplomacy. 

It is certainly of curious interest to have busts of three 
generations, in one family, made by the same hand and within 
a few days of each other, as is the case with Browere's casts 
of John, John Quincy, and Charles Francis Adams. 


Mr. and Mrs. Madison 

^IMMY" MADISON and his wife "Dolly" 
were prominent characters in social as well as 
in public life. He early made a name for him- 
self by his knowledge of constitutional law, and 
acquired fame by the practical use he made of 
his knowledge, in the creation of the Constitution of the United 
States, and in its interpretation in the celebrated letters of the 
"Federalist." With the close of Washington's administration 
Madison determined to retire to private life, but shortly before 
this he met the coy North Carolina Quakeress, Dorothea 
Payn. She was at the time the young widow of John Todd, 
to whom she had been married not quite a year, and Madison 
made her his wife. 

James Madison was born in 1 75 1 and Dorothea Payn in 
1772, but the score and one years' difference in their ages did 


Age 74 

Life Masks 57 

not prevent them from enjoying a married life of two score 
and two years of unclouded happiness. Madison died in 1836, 
and was survived by Mrs. Madison for thirteen years. 

Madison's temperament, like that of his young bride, was 
tuned to too high a pitch to be contented with quietness after 
the excitement incident to his earlier career. Therefore his 
retirement, like stage farewells, was only temporary, and he 
became afterward the fourth President of the United States. 
As we have seen, it was Madison who brought Browere to the 
notice of Jefferson, and Browere was commended to Madison 
in the following letter from General Jacob Brown, the land 
hero of the war of 1 8 1 2, and later Commander-in-chief of 
the Army of the United States : 

Washington City, Oct. 1st, 1825. 
My Dear Sir: 

Mr. Browere waits on you and Mrs. Madison with the 
expectation of being permitted to take your portrait busts from 
the life. As I have a sincere regard for him as a gentleman 
and a scholar, and great confidence in his skill as an artist 
(he having made two busts of myself), in the art which he is 
cultivating, I name him to you with much pleasure as being 
worthy of your encouragement and patronage. I am inter- 
ested in having Mr. Browere take your likeness, for I have 

58 Life Masks 

long been desirous to obtain a perfect one of you. From 
what I have seen and heard of Mr. Browere's efforts to copy 
nature, I hope to receive from his hands that desideratum in a 
faithful facsimile of my esteemed friend ex-President Madison. 
Be pleased to present my most respectful regards to Mrs. 
Madison, and believe me alway 

Your most devoted friend, 

Jacob Brown. 

From this introduction Browere seems to have gained the 
friendship of Mr. and Mrs. Madison, who took more than an 
ordinary interest in the artist and his family. They were on 
terms of familiar intercourse, and an infant, born to Mrs. 
Browere, July 3, 1826, was, by Mrs. Madison's permission, 
named for her. Some years later this child accompanied her 
parents on an extended visit to Montpelier. 

That Madison was satisfied with the result of Browere's 
skill is shown by the following : 

Per request of Mr. Browere, busts of myself and of my 

wife, regarded as exact likenesses, have been executed by him 

in plaister, being casts made from the moulds formed on our 

persons, of which this certificate is given under my hand at 

Montpelier, 19, October, 1825. 

James Madison. 

Age 53 

Life Masks 59 

Mr. and Mrs. Madison each submitted to Browere's process 
a second time, which is sufficient evidence that the ordeal was 
not severe and hazardous. The bust of Madison is very fine 
in character and expression, but that of Mrs. Madison is of 
particular interest, as being the only woman's face handed 
down to us by Browere. Her great beauty has been heralded 
by more than one voice and one pen, but not one of the many 
portraits that we have of her, from that painted by Gilbert 
Stuart, aged about thirty, to the one drawn by Mr. Eastman 
Johnson, shortly before her death, sustains the verbal verdict 
of her admirers; and now the life mask by Browere would 
seem to settle the question of her beauty in the negative. 

" Dolly" Madison was in her fifty and third year when Brow- 
ere made his mask of her face, and she lived on for a quarter 
century. She has always been surrounded by an atmosphere 
of personal interest, not so much for what she was as for what 
she was supposed to be. She doubtless possessed a charm of 
manner that made her a most attractive hostess at the White 
House during her reign of eight years, in which particular she 
shares the laurels with the winsome wife of Mr. Cleveland. 


Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

HE last of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, to be gathered to his fathers, 
was the distinguished Marylander, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, who so signed his name 
to distinguish himself from a younger kins- 
man of the same name, his object being merely purposes of 
convenience, and not the patriotic purpose of identifying him- 
self to the British, as is commonly stated. Charles Carroll 
was not a member of the Continental Congress when the 
Declaration of Independence was adopted, but took his seat a 
fortnight afterward, in time to sign the instrument with the 
rest of the sitting delegates, when it was placed before them 
on August 2, 1776. 

Mr. Carroll died November 14, 1832, in his ninety-sixth 



Age 88 

Life Masks 61 

year, and his last public act was to lay the corner-stone of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on July 4, 1828. From the 
description of his personal appearance at this time, as given by 
Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, it would seem as if it had been 
written of Browere's bust, so true is Browere's work to the 
life. Mr. Latrobe says : " In my mind's eye I see Mr. Carroll 
now — a small, attenuated old man, with a prominent nose 
and receding chin, [and] small eyes that sparkled when he was 
interested in conversation. His head was small and his hair 
white, rather long and silky, while his face and forehead were 
seamed with wrinkles." 

At the present time, when foreign matrimonial alliances of 
high degree, with American women, are of almost daily 
occurrence, it is interesting to note that among the first Ameri- 
can women to marry into the nobility of England were three 
granddaughters of the " signer," Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 
They were the children of his daughter, Mrs. Caton, and 
became respectively the Marchioness of Wellesley, the Duchess 
of Leeds, and Lady Stafford. 

Browere, when he presented himself to Mr. Carroll for the 
purpose of making his mask, was armed with the following 
letter from the eminent scientist, Doctor Samuel Latham 
Mitchill, which contains the super-added endorsements of 
Archibald Robertson, Richard Riker and M. M. Noah : 

62 Life Masks 

New York, July 8, 1825. 
My dear Sir: 

I approve your design of executing a likeness in statuary of 
the Honorable Charles Carroll of Carrollton. When you shall 
present yourself to him within a few days, I authorize you to 
employ my testimony in favor of your skill, having submitted 
more than once to your plastic operation. I know that you 
can perform it successfully without pain and within a reason- 
able time. The likenesses you have made are remarkably 
exact, so much so that they may be truly called facsimile imi- 
tations of the life. Your gallery contains so many specimens 
of correct casts that not only common observers, but even 
critical judges bear witness to your industry, genius and talents. 
I foresee that your collection of busts already well advanced 
and rapidly enlarging, will, if your labors continue, become a 
depositary of peculiar and intrinsic value. Without instituting 
any invidious comparison between sister arts, the professional 
branch under which you address Mr. Carroll, possesses, in my 
humble opinion, all the superiority that sculpture exercises over 
music and painting. 

Yours, with kind feelings and fervent wishes for success, 

Samuel L. Mitchill. 


The Nation 's Guest 

La Fayette 

had fought side by side with Washington at 
Brandywine and at Yorktown, made his third 
and last visit to the United States in 1824. 
Landing at Castle Garden, in New York, on 
August 15th of that year, he set sail thirteen months later, on 
September 7th, 1825, to return to France, in the frigate Brandy- 
wine. He came as the invited guest of the nation, and during 
his sojourn here travelled over the whole country, visiting 
each one of the twenty-four States and receiving one con- 
tinuous ovation. 

At the request of the Common Council of the city of New 
York, La Fayette permitted Browere to make a cast of his 


64 Life Masks 

head, neck and shoulders on July 11, 1825. For this purpose 
La Fayette visited Browere's workshop, in the rear of No. 315 
Broadway, New York, accompanied by Richard Riker, Elisha 
W. King and Henry I. Wyckoff, a committee of the Common 
Council. The composition had been applied and had set, and 
Browere was about taking it off, when the clock struck, and 
one of the committee remarked that the hour for the corpora- 
tion dinner in honor of La Fayette, and which he was to 
attend, had arrived. " Sacre bleu!" said La Fayette, starting 
up, "Take it off! Take it off!" which caused a piece to fall 
out from under one of the eyes. This accident, which neces- 
sitated a second sitting, led to some interesting correspondence. 

New York, Tuesday 12 o'clock, 

July 12, 1825. 
Dear General: 

We have just been to see your bust by Mr. Browere and 
have pleasure in saying it is vastly superior to any other like- 
ness of General La Fayette, which as yet has fallen under our 
inspection. Indeed it is a faithful resemblance in every part 
of your features and form, from the head to the breast, with 
the exception of a slight defect about the left eye, caused by 
a loss of the material of which the mould was made. This 
defect or deficiency Mr. Browere assures us, and we have con- 

Life Masks 65 

fidence in his assertion, that he can correct in a few minutes 
and without giving you any pain, provided you will again con- 
descend to his operations, for a limited time. We should 
much regret that this slight blemish should not be corrected, 
which if not done will cause to us and to the Nation a con- 
tinued source of chagrin and disappointment. 

Most truly your Friends 

Richard Riker 
Elisha W. King 
Henry I. Wyckoff. 

This letter was followed two days later by the following to 
Browere : 

New York 14th July 1825. 
Dear Sir: 

Every exertion has been made to get General La Fayette to 
spend half an hour with you, so the eye of his portrait bust be 
completed, but in vain. He has not had more than four 
hours each night to sleep, but has consented that you may 
take his mask in Philadelphia. He left New York this morn- 
ing at eight o'clock and will be in Philadelphia on Monday 
next, where he will remain three days. If you can be present 
there on Monday or Tuesday at furthest, you can complete 

66 Life Masks 

the matter. He has pledged his word. This arrangement 
was all that could be effected by 

Your friend 

Elisha W. King. 

P. S. Previous to going get a line from the Recorder or 

Upon this letter Browere has endorsed : 

Note. — The subscribing artist met the General on Monday, 
in the Hall of Independence, Philadelphia, and Tuesday morn- 
ing [July 19, 1825] from seven to eight o'clock was busy in 
making another likeness from the face and head of the Gen- 
eral. At 4 p. m. of that day he finished the bust under the 
eye of the General and his attendant, and had the satisfaction 
then of receiving from the General the assurance that it was 
the only good bust ever made of him. 

John H. I. Browere. 

The result of the second trial was a likeness so admirable 
and of such remarkable fidelity, that General Jacob Morton, 
Rembrandt Peale, De Witt Clinton, S. F. B. Morse, John A. 
Graham, Thomas Addis Emmet and others, came forward and 
enthusiastically bore witness to its being "a perfect facsimile" 
of the distinguished Frenchman. The written commenda- 


Age 67 

Life Masks 67 

tions of Peale and Morse are notably interesting as the views 
of two brother artists, each of whom had painted a portrait of 
La Fayette. Rembrandt Peale, widely known by his composite 
portrait of Washington, writes : 

New York August 10th 1825. 

The singular excellence shown by Mr. Browere in his 
new method of executing Portrait busts from the life deserves 
the applause and patronage of his countrymen. The bust of 
La Fayette, which he has just finished, is an admirable demon- 
stration of his talent in this department of the Fine Arts. The 
accuracy with which he has moulded the entire head, neck 
and shoulders from the life and his skill in finishing, render 
this bust greatly superior to any we have seen. It is in truth 
a "faithful and a living likeness." Of this I may judge having 
twice painted the General's portrait from the life, once at 
Paris and recently at Washington. 

Rembrandt Peale. 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse was, at the period of which we 
write, an artist of some reputation as a portrait-painter, and he 
was under commission, from the corporation of New York, to 
paint a whole-length portrait of La Fayette for the City Hall, 
where it now hangs. Its chief interest is as a study of costume; 

68 Life Masks 

for if Browere's bust is "a perfect facsimile" of La Fayette's 
form and features, true to life, Morse's portrait is a caricature. 
That Morse was destined to greater ends than painting mediocre 
portraits, was shown, a decade later, by his invention of the 
magnetic electric telegraph, a discovery of such importance 
that while millions of human beings know Morse the inventor, 
not a dozen perhaps ever heard of Morse the painter. He 
damns his own portrait of La Fayette by the following com- 
mendation of Browere's bust : 

New York August 15, 1825. 

Being requested by Mr. Browere to give my opinion of 
his bust or cast from the person of General La Fayette, I feel 
no hesitation in saying it appears to me to be a perfect fac- 
simile of the General's face. 

Saml. F. B. Morse. 

These are certainly strong words coming from a rival artist 
and a man of Mr. Morse's character. 

John A. Graham, who published a volume to prove that 
Home Tooke was the author of the Letters of Junius, was 
one of the leading lawyers of New York. His closing words 
of eulogy upon the bust of La Fayette should have been, but un- 

Life Masks 


fortunately were not, prophetic. He wrote : " I have no doubt 
that the name of Browere, in virtue of this bust, will live as 
long as the memory of La Fayette shall be beloved and re- 
spected in America." On the contrary, the name of Browere 
was wholly and entirely forgotten and unknown, until brought 
to light, and publicly proclaimed, by the present writer, in the 
fall of 1897. S° much for the stability of man's reputation! 


De TVitt Clinton 

(HEN Samuel Woodworth, the author of 
the well-known lines to the " Old Oaken 
Bucket," who was a close friend of Brow- 
ere, entered the artist's workshop and 
caught a glimpse of the bust of De Witt 

Clinton, he made a gesture, as of restraint, and pronounced 

these impromptu lines : 

' Stay ! the bust that graces yonder shelf claims our regard. 
It is the front of Jove himself; 
The Majesty of Virtue and of Power, 
Before which guilt and meanness only cower. 
Who can behold that bust and not exclaim, 
Let everlasting honor claim our Clinton's name ! " 


Age 56 

Life Masks 71 

De Witt Clinton, who was born in 1769 and died in 1828, 
was the first recognized practical politician of this country. 
Apart from his immense service in pushing to completion the 
Erie canal, he was essentially a politician for what politics 
would yield. Consequently, he was always looked upon with 
distrust, and even his high private station was powerless to 
overcome this feeling. He posed as a connoisseur of the fine 
arts, was at one time President of the American Academy 
of Arts, and seems to have had a lofty appreciation of Brow- 
ere's work. He wrote: "I have seen and examined with 
attention several specimens of busts executed by Mr. Browere 
in plaster, and have no hesitation in saying that their accuracy 
is equally surprising and gratifying. I feel pleasure in recom- 
mending the fidelity of his likenesses, and the skill with which 
they are executed, particularly the portrait bust of General 
La Fayette." 

Of Clinton's own bust the eminent Irish patriot and Ameri- 
can advocate, Thomas Addis Emmet, wrote to Browere: 

New York July 6th 1826. 

If my opinion as to the merits of the portrait busts I have 
seen of your workmanship, can be of any advantage to you, it 
is entirely at your service. I really think them all entitled to 

7 2 

Life Masks 

great praise for fidelity of expression and accuracy of resem- 
blance. Those of General La Fayette and Governor Clinton 
are, as far as I can judge, the most perfect likenesses of the 
originals that have as yet been presented to the public. 
I am, Dear Sir, your obt Servt 

Thomas Addis Emmet. 


Henry Clay 

iENRY CLAY, who wore the appellation, con- 
ferred upon Pitt, of " the Great Commoner," 
long before it was given to Mr. Gladstone, has 
left behind him perhaps the most distinct per- 
sonality of any of the statesmen of his era. 
Where Daniel Webster counted his admirers by hundreds, 
Henry Clay was idolized by thousands ; the one appealing to 
the head and the other to the heart. His strongly marked 
features are familiar to every one, from the scores of portraits 
of him to be found here, there, and everywhere ; while there 
are, living to-day, a large number of people who knew Clay 
in the flesh ; so that Browere's bust of him needs no perfunc- 
tory certificate to assure of its truthfulness. It is certainly 
human to a wonderful degree, and there could scarcely be any 


74 Life Masks 

truer portraiture than this, wherein we have the very features 
of the living man down to the minutest detail. 

Clay was of striking physique. He was quite tall, nearly 
six feet two inches, rather sparsely built, with a crane-like 
neck that he endeavored to conceal by his collar and stock. 
He had an immense mouth, phenomenal for size as well as 
shape, and kindly blue eyes which were electrical when kin- 
dled. Yet he was so magnetic in his power over men that 
when he was defeated for the Presidency, thousands of his 
Whig followers wept as they heard the news. 

Henry Clay was born in Hanover county, Virginia, April 
12, iJJJ, and died at Washington, June 29, 1852, preceding 
his compeer Webster to the grave by only a few months. On 
reaching his majority, he removed to Lexington, Kentucky, 
which became his future home, although he was so rarely out 
of public life that he was comparatively little there. Having 
chosen the law for his profession, he was admitted to the bar, 
and before attaining his thirtieth year, was sent to the Senate 
of the United States. He was strenuous in his support of 
home industries, and endeavored by legislation to enforce upon 
legislators the wearing of homespun cloths. So ardent was 
he in this, that his course led to a duel with Humphrey Mar- 
shall, in which both were slightly wounded. 

At the close of the war of 1 8 1 2, Clay was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to negotiate the treaty of peace with 

Age 48 

Life Masks 75 

Great Britain, and as such signed the Treaty of Ghent. He 
was known as "the great Pacificator," from his course in the 
events that led to the Missouri Compromise and later averted 
Southern " nullification." He was an active and bitter oppo- 
nent of Andrew Jackson, and supported John Quincy Adams 
against him for the Presidency, his reward being the portfolio 
of State ; but there was no bargain and corruption about this 
business as his enemies claimed and which haunted Clay's 
political career throughout the rest of his life. He was an 
ambitious man, and his failure to reach the goal of his ambi- 
tion — the presidential chair — was a fatal blow. 

Clay was undoubtedly one of the greatest orators this coun- 
try has produced, and a man with much natural ability, but 
little study and cultivation. His name is one to conjure with 
in old Kentucky, and it is with a moist eye that personal rem- 
iniscences of Clay are related out there in the blue grass State, 
even at this day, nearly half a century after his decease. 


America' 's Master Painter 

Gilbert Stuart 

'NE artist, and he easily the first of American 
painters, did not deny to Browere and his 
works the merit that was their due. On the 
contrary, he saw the fidelity and great value of 
these life masks, and gave practical encourage- 
ment to the maker of them by submitting to his process and 
by giving a certificate of approval. He did this, not so much 
that his living face might be transmitted to posterity, as to test 
the truth of the newspaper reports of the suffering and danger 
experienced by the venerable and venerated Jefferson, and thus 
by his example encourage others to go and do likewise. The 
result was the superb head of Gilbert Stuart, herewith repro- 
duced from the original bust, in the Redwood Library, at 

7 6 

Life Masks jj 

Newport, Rhode Island. This noble action of Stuart must 
have been as light out of darkness to Browere. 

Upon the completion of the mask, from which this bust was 
made, Stuart gave to Browere the following emphatic certificate: 

Boston November 29th 1825. 

Mr. Browere, of the city of New York, has this day made 
a portrait bust of me from life, with which I am perfectly sat- 
isfied and which I hope will remove any illiberal misrepresen- 
tations that may deprive the nation from possessing like records 

of more important men. 

G. Stuart. 

The "illiberal misrepresentations" referred to were of course 
the reported inconveniences that Jefferson had suffered ; and 
praise such as this, from Stuart, is, as approbation from Sir 
Hubert Stanley, praise indeed. 

A few days afterward the Boston "Daily Advertiser" an- 
nounced: "The portrait bust of Gilbert Stewart, Esq., lately 
executed by Mr. Browere, will be exhibited by him at the 
Hubard Gallery, this evening. This exhibition is made by 
him for the purpose of showing that he can present a perfect 
likeness, and he will prove at the same time, by the certificate 
of Mr. Stewart, that the operation is without pain." Two 

78 Life Masks 

days later the local press fairly teemed with laudatory notices 
of Browere's work. The Boston "American" said: "This bust 
has been adjudged by all who have examined it and are ac- 
quainted with the original to be a striking and perfect resem- 
blance." The " Commercial Gazette " said : " It is a fine likeness, 
in truth we think the best we ever saw of any one. We par- 
ticularly enquired of Mr. Stuart's family if he suffered by any 
difficulty of breathing or if the process was in any degree pain- 
ful, and were assured that there was nothing of an unpleasant 
or painful nature in it." 

Considering Stuart's eminence in art, a position fully recog- 
nized in his lifetime, and his irascible temper and unyielding 
character, such action as his toward Browere, not only in sub- 
mitting to have the mask taken, but in certifying to it and 
permitting it to be publicly exhibited for the benefit of Brow- 
ere's reputation, speaks volumes of the highest authority in 
support of the workman and his work. 

Stuart's daughter, Jane, who died at Newport, in 1888, at 
a very advanced age, and was as "impossible" in some respects 
as was her distinguished father, remembered well the incident 
of the mask being taken, and testified to its marvellous life- 
speaking qualities. Having lost all knowledge of its where- 
abouts, she searched for years in the hope of finding it, since 
she looked upon it as the next thing to having her father 
before her. Finally, in the Centennial year, it was discovered 


Age 70 

Life Masks 79 

in the possession of Browere's son, and was purchased by Mr. 
David King, of Newport, as a present for Miss Stuart. But 
Miss Stuart felt that her little cottage, so well remembered by 
many visitors to Newport, was no place for so big a work, 
and desired that it might be placed in a public gallery, which 
wish Mr. King complied with, by presenting it to the Red- 
wood Library, at Newport, where it may be seen by all inter- 
ested in Stuart or in Browere's life masks. Jane Stuart is the 
subject of Colonel Wentworth Higginson's charming paper, 
"One of Thackeray's Women," in his volume of Essays 
entitled " Concerning All of Us." 

Gilbert Stuart was born in what was called the Narragansett 
country, on December 3, 1755. The actual place of his birth 
is now called Hammond Mills, near North Kingston, Rhode 
Island, about nine miles from Narragansett Pier ; and the old- 
fashioned gambrel-roofed, low-portalled house, in which the 
future artist first saw light, still stands at the head of Petaquam- 
scott Pond. The snuff-mill set up by Gilbert Stewart, the 
father of the painter, who had come over from Perth, in Scot- 
land, at the suggestion of a fellow Scotchman, Doctor Thomas 
Moffatt, to introduce the manufacture of snuff into the col- 
onies, was located, by the race, immediately under the room in 
which Stuart was born, both being part of the same building, 
so that Stuart's excuse for taking snuff, that he was born in a 
snuff-mill, is literally true. 

80 Life Masks 

When four months old, the third and youngest child of the 
snuff-grinder and his beautiful wife, Elizabeth Anthony, was 
carried, on Palm Sunday, to the Episcopal church and bap- 
tized "Gilbert Stewart." The significance of this record is 
found in the orthography of the surname and in the limita- 
tion of the baptismal name. Stuart's name will be found in 
print quite frequently as " Gilbert Charles Stuart," and I have 
seen it as "Charles Gilbert Stuart"; and the Jacobin leaning 
of his Scotch sire, is commonly supported by the naming of 
the child for the last of the Royal Stuarts, the romantic Prince 
Charlie. This pretty legend, built to support unreliable tradi- 
tion, is blown to the winds by the prosaic church record, 
which shows that the artist's orthography was an assumption, 
and his name simply Gilbert Stewart. That this plebeian 
spelling of the royal name, was not an error or accident of 
the scribe who made it, is proved by signatures of the snuff- 
grinder which have come down to us. 

Stuart's parents early removed to Newport, where the son 
had the advantage of tuition in English and Latin, from the 
assistant minister of venerable Trinity parish ; but in his boy- 
hood Stuart seems to have shown none of those dominant 
characteristics which later were so strongly developed both in 
the artist and in the man, unless it may be the predilection 
for pranks and practical jokes that early manifested itself. 

The earliest picture that can be recognized as from the 
brush of Gilbert Stuart, is a pair of Spanish dogs belonging to 

Life Masks 81 

the famous Dr. William Hunter, of Newport, which Stuart is 
said to have painted when in his fourteenth year; and what 
are claimed to be his first portraits, those of Mr. and Mrs- 
Bannister, have been so nearly destroyed by "restoration," 
that nothing of the original work remains to show any merit 
the pictures may have possessed. 

Stuart's first instruction in art was received from Cosmo 
Alexander, a Scotchman, who passed a few years in the colo- 
nies painting a number of interesting portraits in the affected, 
perfunctory manner of the period. Of Alexander nothing 
was known until recent investigations by the writer discovered 
him to be a great-grandson of George Jamesone, whom Wal- 
pole calls "the Vandyke of Scotland." Alexander took Stuart, 
then in his eighteenth year, back with him to Scotland, to 
acquire a greater knowledge of art than was possible in the 
colonies at that time ; and Stuart is claimed to have been at 
this period a student at the University of Glasgow. But this 
tradition, like that previously mentioned, is shattered, as tra- 
dition almost always is shattered, by the cold, unimaginative 
record, which fails to show his name on the matriculation 

Alexander died not long after reaching Edinburgh, and 
Stuart was left, according to his biographers, in the care of 
Alexander's friend, "Sir George Chambers," who "quickly 
followed Alexander to the grave," leaving Stuart without pro- 
tection. But this story is manifestly without foundation, as 

82 Life Masks 

there was no "Sir George Chambers" at the period considered. 
There was, however, a Scotch painter of some repute, Sir 
George Chalmers, of Cults, who had married either a sister 
or a daughter of Cosmo Alexander ; and this Sir George 
Chalmers is doubtless the person intended, although he lived 
on until 1 791, so that it could not have been his demise 
that threw Stuart upon his own resources, which, being 
few, necessitated his working his way home, on a collier, 
after a few months' absence. 

Stuart returned to America from Scotland at a period of 
intense excitement. The Boston Port bill had just been re- 
ceived, assuring what the Stamp Act had initiated, and the 
tories and the patriots were being marshalled according to 
their particular bias. It was not a time for the peaceful arts. 
It was the time for action and for town meetings. Before 
the echoes of Lexington and Concord had died away, "Gil- 
bert Stewart the snuff-grinder" hied himself away to Nova 
Scotia, leaving his wife and family behind. At this epoch 
Gilbert Stuart, the future painter, was in his twentieth year, 
and apparently had inherited from his father sentiments of 
loyalty to the Crown, so that instead of going forth to battle 
for his native land, as many no older than he did, he em- 
barked for England, the day before the action at Bunker 
Hill, with the ostensible object of seeking the Mecca of all 
of our early artists, the studio of Benjamin West. 

Life Masks 83 

Once in London, Stuart's object to seek instruction in paint- 
ing from West, seems to have weakened, and he remained in 
the great metropolis nearly two years before he knocked at 
the Newman-street door of the kindly Pennsylvanian. These 
months were occupied chiefly with a sister art in which Stuart 
was most proficient. He loved music more than he loved 
painting — a taste that never forsook him. He played upon 
several instruments, but his favorites were the organ and the 
flute ; indeed the story has come down that his last night in 
Newport, before sailing, was spent in playing the flute under 
the window of one of its fair denizens. 

This knowledge of music stood Stuart in good stead when 
an unknown youth in an unknown land. A few days after 
his arrival in London, hungry and penniless, he passed the 
open door of a church, through which there came to his ear 
the strains of a feebly played organ. He ventured in and 
found the vestry sitting in judgment upon several applicants for 
the position of organist. Receiving permission to enter the 
competition, he was selected for the position at a salary of 
thirty pounds, after having satisfied the officials of his char- 
acter, by reference to Mr. William Grant, whose whole- 
length portrait Stuart afterward painted. 

Having some kind of subsistence assured him by the position 
of organist he thus secured, Stuart began that desultory dallying 
with art which later often left him without a dry crust for his 

84 Life Masks 

daily bread. While his work was always serious, his tem- 
perament never was, and he seems to have played cruel jokes 
upon himself, as carelessly as he did upon others. For two 
years his career is almost lost to art ; only once in a while did 
he gather himself together to work at his painting. He had, 
however, to a marked degree, that odd resource of genius 
which enabled him to work best and catch up with lost time 
when under the spur of necessity. In later days, with sitters 
besieging his door, he would turn them away, one by one, 
until the larder was empty and there was not a penny left in 
the purse; then he would go to work and in an incredibly 
short time produce one of his masterpieces. 

Such was the character, in outline, of the man who went to 
London to study under West, and, after reaching the metropo- 
lis, let two years slip by him without seeking his chosen master. 
Finally he went to the famous American and was received as 
a pupil and as a member of the painter's family, in true ap- 
prentice style. Just what Stuart learned from West it is diffi- 
cult to imagine ; — unless it was how not to paint. For, without 
desiring or meaning to join in the hue and cry of to-day 
against the art of West, but on the contrary, protesting against 
the clamor which fails to consider the conditions that existed 
in his time and therefore fails to do him the justice that is his 
due, there is surely nothing in the work of the one to suggest 
anything in the work of the other. 

Life Masks 85 

For five long and doubtless weary years Stuart plodded 
under the guidance of his gentle master until, tired of doing 
some of the most important parts of West's royal commissions, 
for which his remuneration was probably only his keep and 
tuition, without even the chance of glory, he broke away and 
opened a studio for himself in New Burlington Street. If 
Stuart did gain little in art from West, he gained much of 
the invaluable benefit of familiar intercourse with persons 
of the first distinction, who were frequenters of the studio 
of the King's painter. This was of great advantage to the 
young artist when he set up his own easel, and many of these 
men became his early sitters. 

Stuart, while domiciled with West, drew in the schools of 
the Royal Academy, attended the lectures of the distinguished 
William Cruikshank on anatomy, and listened to the dis- 
courses delivered by Sir Joshua Reynolds on painting. Later 
on he painted the portraits of each of these celebrated men, 
and did enough individual work to indicate the quality of the 
artistic stuff that was in him, awaiting an opportunity to mani- 
fest itself. In 1777, the year Stuart went to West, he made 
his first exhibition at the Royal Academy. His one contribu- 
tion is entered in the catalogue of that year merely as " A 
Portrait." It is not improbable that this was a portrait of his 
fellow countryman and early friend, Benjamin Waterhouse, 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who preceded Stuart to London 

86 Life Masks 

only a short time, and who seems to have remained the artist's 
chum during their sojourn in the English capital. A portrait of 
Doctor Waterhouse, by Stuart, was given by the Doctor's widow, 
to the Redwood library, at Newport, together with Stuart's 
self-portrait, wearing a large hat, and dated on the back, 1778. 
These two portraits are evidently of a contemporaneous period. 
In 1779 Stuart exhibited, at the Royal Academy, three 
pictures: "A Young Gentleman," "A Little Girl," and " A 
Head." In 1781 he showed "A Portrait from Recollection 
since Death," and in 1782 made his last exhibition there, 
sending a "Portrait of an Artist," and "A Portrait of a Gen- 
tleman Skating." This last picture, although painted so early 
in his career, has been considered Stuart's chef-d 'ceuvre. It is 
a whole-length portrait of Mr. William Grant, of Congalton, 
skating in St. James Park. Mr. Grant was the early friend 
who bore testimony to Stuart's character, whereby Stuart 
gained the organist's position soon after his arrival in London ; 
and the story has come down that Mr. Grant, desiring to help 
Stuart, determined to sit for his portrait, and went to Stuart's 
room for a sitting. The day was crisp and cold, and the con- 
versation, not unnaturally, turned upon skating, a sport much 
enjoyed by both painter and sitter, each being rarely skilful 
at it. Finally paints and brushes were put away, and the 
two friends started forth to skate. Stuart was so struck with 
the beauty and rhythm of his companion's motion that he 

Life Masks 87 

determined to essay a picture of him thus engaged. The 
original canvas was abandoned and a new one begun, show- 
ing Mr. Grant not merely upon skates, but actually skating ; 
and the latent force of the graceful undulating motion has 
been rendered with a skill and ability that at once put Stuart 
in the front rank of the great portrait-painters of his day. 

The remarkable merit of this picture and the wilful un- 
reasonableness of painters in not signing their works, were 
curiously shown at the exhibition of "Pictures by the Old 
Masters," held at Burlington House, in January of 1878. In 
the printed catalogue of the collection this picture was attrib- 
uted to Gainsborough, and attracted and received marked 
attention. A writer in the " Saturday Review," speaking of 
the exhibition, remarks : " Turning to the English school, we 
may observe a most striking portrait in number 128, in Gallery 
III. This is set down as ' Portrait of W. Grant, Esq., of 
Congalton, skating in St. James Park. Thomas Gainsborough, 
R. A. (?) ' The query is certainly pertinent, for, while it is 
difficult to believe that we do not recognize Gainsborough's 
hand in the graceful and silvery look of the landscape in the 
background, it is not easy to reconcile the flesh tones of the 
portrait itself with any preconceived notion of Gainsborough's 
workmanship. The face has a peculiar firmness and decision 
in drawing, which reminds one rather of Raeburn than of 
Gainsborough, though we do not mean by this to suggest in 

88 Life Masks 

any way that Gainsborough wanted decision in either painting 
or drawing when he chose to exercise it." 

The discussion as to the authorship of this picture waxed 
warm, the champions of Raeburn, of Romney, and of Shee, 
contending with those of Gainsborough for the prize, which 
contention was only set at rest by a grandson of the subject 
coming out with a card that the picture was by " the great por- 
trait-painter of America, Gilbert Stuart." And to Stuart it 
did justly belong. 

With the success of this portrait of Mr. Grant, Stuart was 
launched upon the sea of prosperity, and to himself alone, and 
not to want of patronage or lack of opportunity, is due his 
failure to provide against old age or a rainy day. For a while 
he lived like a lord, in reckless extravagance. Money rolled 
in upon him, and he spent it lavishly, without a thought for 
the morrow. His rooms were thronged with sitters, and he 
received prices for his work second only to those of Reynolds 
and of Gainsborough. He was on the best footing with his 
brethren of the brush, and with Gainsborough, his senior by 
more than a quarter of a century, he painted a whole-length 
portrait of Henry, Earl of Carnarvon, in his robes, which has 
been engraved in mezzotinto by William Ward, with the 
names of the two painters inscribed upon the plate. This 
alone shows the estimation in which Stuart was held by his 
contemporaries, and it would be most interesting to know 

Life Masks 89 

which parts were the work of Stuart and which were due to 
his famous collaborator. 

About this period Boydell was in the midst of the publica- 
tion of his great Shakespeare gallery, to which the first artists 
of the day contributed, and Stuart was commissioned by the 
Alderman, to paint, for the gallery, portraits of the leading 
painters and engravers who were engaged upon the work. 
Thus, for Boydell, he painted the superb half-length portraits of 
his master West, and of the engravers Woollett and Hall, now 
in the National Portrait Gallery, St. Martin's Place, London. 
He painted, also for Boydell, his own portrait, and portraits 
of Reynolds, Copley, Gainsborough, Ozias Humphrey, Earlom, 
Facius, Heath, William Sharp, Boydell himself, and several 
others. Stuart was an intimate friend of John Philip Kemble, 
and painted his portrait several times ; one picture is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, and another, as Richard III., which 
has been engraved by Keating, did belong to Sir Henry Halford. 

Other prominent sitters to Stuart in London were Hugh, 
Duke of Northumberland, the Lord Percy of the Battle of 
Bunker Hill; Admiral Sir John Jervis, afterward Earl St. 
Vincent ; Isaac Barre ; Dr. Fothergill, and the Dukes of Man- 
chester and of Leinster. From these names alone it can be 
seen that Stuart was in touch with persons of the highest con- 
sideration, and they were not only his patrons, but his friends. 
He kept open house, dispensing a princely hospitality. The 
story has been handed down that he led off with a dinner of 

90 Life Masks 

forty-two, composed of the choice spirits of the metropolis. 
He was so charming as a host, and had gathered together 
such delightful guests, that it was suggested the same party 
should meet frequently, which proposition Stuart accepted, by 
arranging that six of them should dine with him each day 
of the week, without special invitation, the six first arriving 
to be the guests of the day, until the entire forty-two had 
again warmed their legs under his mahogany. Such prodigal- 
ity as this, for a young artist, shows what Stuart's tempera- 
ment was, and points as surely to the pauper's grave as though 
it was there yawning open before him. 

Stuart was five feet ten inches in height, with fine physique, 
brown hair, a ruddy complexion, and strongly marked fea- 
tures. He dressed with elegance, which was possible at that 
period, and notwithstanding his biting sarcasm, keen wit, and 
searching eye, was a great favorite with the fair sex. In his 
thirty-first year he selected Miss Charlotte Coates, the daughter 
of a Berkshire physician, for his partner through life, and on 
May 10, 1786, they were married. 

Stuart remained in London until 1788, when he was in- 
duced to visit Ireland and open a studio in Dublin. Here he 
kept up the same style of living he had indulged in before he 
left London and was in high favor with the Irish, painting 
some of his most elaborate portraits at this time; but, although 
fully employed and receiving the highest prices for his pic- 
tures, he was always without money. So poor was he, indeed, 

Life Masks 91 

that when he returned to this country, in 1792, he had not 
the means to pay for his passage and engaged to paint the 
portrait of the owner of the ship as its equivalent. He landed 
in New York towards the close of the year ; and although the 
tradition has been handed down that the cause of his return- 
ing to America, was his desire to paint the portrait of Wash- 
ington, it seems, considering that he waited two years before 
visiting Philadelphia for the purpose, that the remark of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence may not have been without foundation. 
The latter, upon hearing this reason assigned, is related by 
Leslie to have said: "I knew Stuart well and I believe the 
real cause of his leaving England was his having become tired 
of the inside of our prisons." Whatever the real cause was 
that brought the artist home, we may congratulate ourselves 
that he came to live among us at the period that he did, for 
he was then in the fulness of his powers, and the pictures that he 
painted between this time and his removal to Boston, in 1805, 
are the finest productions of his brush on this side of the water. 
Gilbert Stuart went to reside in Philadelphia about New 
Year, 1795. There he painted his famous life portraits of 
Washington, three in number, but I have written so often 
and so much on this subject that I shall content myself with 
this bare mention. 1 There also he painted the portraits of the 
famous men and of the beautiful women that have helped most 
to place his name so high up on the pillar of fame. That Stuart 

1 Vide " Stuart's Lansdowne Portrait of Washington," in Harper's Magazine, Aug., 1 896. 

92 Life Masks 

was a master in the art of portrait-painting it needs no argu- 
ment to prove ; his works are the only evidence needed, and 
they establish it beyond appeal. In his portraits the men and 
women of the past live again. Each individual is here, and it 
was Stuart's ability to portray the individual that was his great- 
est power. Each face looks at you and fain would speak, 
while the brilliant and animated coloring makes one forgetful 
of the past. The " Encyclopaedia Britannica," a forum beyond 
dispute, says : " Stuart was pre-eminent as a colourist, and his 
place, judged by the highest canons in art, is unquestionably 
among the few recognized masters of portraiture." 

Stuart had two distinct artistic periods. His English work 
shows plainly the influence of his English contemporaries, and 
might easily be mistaken, as it has been, for the best work of 
Romney or of Gainsborough. But his American work, almost 
the very first he did after his return to his native soil, pro- 
claims aloud the virility and robustness of his independence. 
The rich, juicy coloring so marked in his fine portraits painted 
here, replaces the tender pearly grays so predominant in his 
pictures painted there. The delicate precision of his early 
brush gives way to the masterful freedom of his later one. 
His English portraits might have been limned by Romney 
or by Gainsborough, but his American ones could have been 
painted only by Gilbert Stuart. This greatest of American 
painters died in Boston, July 27, 1828, and was interred in 
an unmarked grave in the Potter's Field. 


David Porter 

United States Navy 

|HILE this country and the world are yet 
enthralled by the magical victories won by 
the American navy over the fleets of Spain, 
it is instructive to recall how the exploits of 
Uncle Sam's boys, on the seas, have always 
bordered on the marvellous. The doings of Paul Jones in the 
Revolutionary War, and of Truxtun in the war with France ; 
of Decatur and of Preble in the war with Tripoli ; of Bain- 
bridge and of Stewart, and of Hull and of Perry, in the second 
war with England ; and of Farragut and of Jouett and of 
Cushing in the war between the States, seem, each one, too 
incredible to have a like successor, yet nothing heretofore 

in naval warfare has approached the victories of Dewey and 


94 Life Masks 

of Sampson. With all these glittering names, we have still 
another name the peer of the best, possessing in addition the 
spur of naval heredity — the name of Porter. 

There have been three officers of high rank in the United 
States navy bearing the name of David Porter. The first 
served the Continental Congress; his son, born in 1780, gave 
the best years of his life to his country on the sea; and his 
grandson, after having four times received the thanks of Con- 
gress for his services during the Civil War, died at the head 
of the navy, with the rank of Admiral, in 1 891. David Porter, 
second of the name, began his naval career in action, having 
been, at the age of eighteen, appointed a midshipman on board 
the frigate Constellation, and with her, soon after, participated in 
the fight where the French frigate L' Insurgente was captured 
by Truxtun with the loss of one man killed and two men 
wounded. Porter subsequently distinguished himself in the 
war with Tripoli, was promoted to a captaincy, and early in 
the war of 1 8 1 2 sailed from New York, in command of the 
Essex, on one of the most eventful cruises ever had by a man- 
of-war. His first feat was to capture the Alert, in an engage- 
ment of eight minutes, without any loss or damage to his ship ; 
and so well directed was the fire of the Essex, that the Alert 
had seven feet of water in her hold when she surrendered. 
This was the first British war vessel taken in the conflict. 
Porter then turned his attention to the destruction of the 


Age 45 

Life Masks 95 

English whale-fishery in the Pacific Ocean, and sailed on this 
errand, around the Horn, for Valparaiso. He made such havoc 
with the British shipping that the loss footed up to two 
million and a half of dollars and four hundred men prisoners. 

The British sent two vessels, with picked crews of five hun- 
dred men and a combined armament of eighty-one guns, to 
search for the Essex (mounting only thirty-two guns and with 
a crew of two hundred and fifty-five men), with instructions 
that neither ship should engage her singly. They found her 
in the neutral harbor of Valparaiso, where she was attacked, 
in defiance of all neutrality laws ; and after one of the most 
desperate engagements in naval history, lasting two hours and 
a half, the Essex was forced to surrender. Upon his return 
home, Captain Porter was received with distinction and given 
the thanks of Congress and of several of the States. He re- 
tired from the navy, in 1826, to take command of the Mexican 
navy, from which he withdrew three years later, was subse- 
quently appointed consul-general to the Barbary States, then 
charge d'affaires at Constantinople, and later minister resident, 
which office he held at the time of his death. 

It was but a short time before Porter's retirement from the 
navy that Browere took his life mask, and the toss of the head 
and the determined mouth show the qualities that made up 
David Porter's character. The spirited pose of this bust is 
quite remarkable in a life mask, and would seem to indicate 

96 Life Masks 

that Browere's material must have been, at least in some de- 
gree, flexible. Porter was very enthusiastic over Browere's 
work, as may be seen from the following letter to Major 
Noah : 

Meridian Hill, i 8th Sept. 1825. 
Dear Sir: 

By means of epistolary introduction I have had the pleasure 

of becoming acquainted with John H. I. Browere, Esq., a 

young and deserving artist of your city. Agreeably to your 

and my friends' requests, I consented to sit for my portrait 

bust, which has been executed by him according to his novel 

and perfect mode. Mr. Browere has succeeded to admiration. 

Nothing can be more accurate and expressive ; in fact, it was 

impossible that it could be otherwise than a perfect facsimile 

of my person, owing to the peculiar neatness and dexterity 

which guide his scientific operation. The knowledge and 

dexterity of Mr. Browere in this branch of the Fine Arts is 

surprising, and were I to express my opinion on the subject, I 

should recommend every one who wished to possess a perfect 

likeness of himself or friends to resort to Mr. Browere in 

preference to any other man. His portrait busts are chef 

d' ' oenvres in the plastic art, unequalled for beauty and correct 

delineation of the human form. To those to whom a saving 

of time is important, Mr. Browere's method must receive the 

preference, were it solely on that ground. As to the effect of 

Life Masks 


the operation, none need apprehend the least danger or incon- 
venience; it is perfectly safe and not disagreeable, for while 
the plastic material is applying to the skin, a sensation both 
harmless and agreeable produces a pleasant glow or heat some- 
what similar to that which is felt on entering a warm bath ; 
neither does the composition affect the eyes, which are covered 
with it. Too much commendation of Mr. Browere's rare and 
invaluable invention cannot be made. May he derive benefits 
from his art equal to his merit. Hoping to have the pleasure 
of seeing my friends in New York during the course of a few 
weeks, I remain, Dear Sir, 

Your obt. servant 

David Porter. 


Richard Rush 

HE clean-cut features of Richard Rush recall a 
statesman and a scholar of "ye olden tyme." 
Born in Philadelphia, the eldest son of that 
signer of the Declaration of Independence who, 
both politician and physician, has been termed 
the Sydenham of America, — Doctor Benjamin Rush, — and a 
kinsman of William Rush, the first American sculptor, men- 
tioned in the second chapter of this book, — Richard Rush was 
bred to the bar, and gained distinction, soon after attaining his 
majority, by his defence of William Duane, the editor of the 
"Aurora" newspaper, accused of libelling Governor McKean. 
When only thirty he entered public life by becoming Attor- 
ney-General of Pennsylvania, and at thirty-four was a member 
of the cabinet of President Madison, as Attorney-General of the 

United States. Three years later, he was for a brief period 



A g e 45 

Life Masks 99 

Secretary of State, and then minister from the United States 
to Great Britain, being recalled, in 1825, to become Secretary 
of the Treasury under John Quincy Adams. It was at this 
period that Browere made his mask. Rush was subsequently 
candidate for Vice-President on the ticket with John Quincy 
Adams when Mr. Adams sought a second term. 

The career of Richard Rush was not only public, but it was 
important, and not the least of his wide-spread benefits were his 
successful efforts in securing for this government the munifi- 
cent legacy of James Smithson ; this was the foundation upon 
which has been reared the Smithsonian Institution, which has 
done so much for scientific pursuits in this country. James 
Smithson was a natural son of Hugh Smithson, Duke of North- 
umberland, and died in Genoa, June 27, 1829, aged about 
seventy-five years. He was a graduate of Oxford, and took 
up the study of natural philosophy, for his expertness in several 
branches of which he was made a member of the Royal So- 
ciety and of the French Institute. He travelled extensively, 
and formed a very valuable cabinet of minerals which came into 
possession of the Institute founded by his liberality, but which 
was unfortunately destroyed in the Smithsonian fire of 1865. 

Smithson's illegitimate birth seems to have engendered a 
desire for posthumous fame, as he wrote: "The best blood of 
England flows in my veins; on my father's side I am a North- 
umberland, on my mother's I am related to kings ; but it avails 

ioo Life Masks 

me not. My name shall live in the memory of man when 
the titles of the Northumberlands and the Percys are extinct 
and forgotten." To carry out this desire he bequeathed his 
whole property, after the expiration of a life estate, "to the 
United States for the purpose of founding an institution at 
Washington, to be called the Smithsonian Institution, for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." 

Although Smithson died in 1829, the United States Gov- 
ernment was not advised of the gift until six years afterward, 
when the life estate fell in, and the will was thrown into 
chancery. It was then that Richard Rush was appointed, by 
President Jackson, special representative of the government to 
pursue and secure the property. He was successful, and re- 
turned to this country, in August of 1838, with the legacy, 
amounting to upwards of half a million of dollars. Nothing 
was done for quite eight years toward carrying into effect the 
bequest of Smithson, except to ask advice, from eminent scholars 
and educators, as to the best means of fulfilling the testator's 
intention. The consensus of opinion was in favor of a univer- 
sity or school for higher education, but Mr. Rush objected to 
a school of any kind, and proposed a plan which more nearly 
corresponded, than any other of the early ones, with that which 
was finally adopted. Thus, both in securing the legacy, and 
directing the curriculum of the institution, Richard Rush took 
a most important part. 

Life Masks 101 

Mr. Rush's last official service was as minister to France, 
during the eventful years of 1847 to 1 85 1, and he was the 
first representative of a foreign power to recognize the new 
republic. He had a fine literary sense, which he did not fail 
to cultivate, and his "Narrative of a Residence at the Court 
of London," and "Washington in Domestic Life," from the 
papers of Tobias Lear, are standard works. It may not be 
without interest to add that Mr. Rush was the author of the 
famous game "Twenty Questions," which has been thought 
worthy of the consideration of some of the brightest minds in 
Europe and in America. 


Edwin Forrest 

r^R many years Edwin Forrest was regarded as 
the greatest of American tragedians, his nearest 
rival being his namesake Edwin Booth. Now 
that the great leveller, death, has claimed them 
both, it may be questioned if Forrest's suprem- 
acy is maintained. The animal was so uppermost in For- 
rest's nature and person that he was unsuited to the delineation 
of the finer types of character, and therefore his greatest 
achievements were in robust parts requiring physical power, 
where he could rant and rage at will. In youth he must have 
had a singularly handsome face, and he was but twenty-one, 
in 1827, when Browere made his life mask. It was during 
an engagement at the old Bowery theatre, New York, when 
Forrest was playing "William Tell." It will be observed 
that the head, which is finely classical, of the Roman type, 
appears to be bald, while Forrest took great pride in his 


Age 21 

Life Masks 103 

luxurious locks. This effect happened in this wise. Forrest was 
a novice on the stage and had just made his first appearance as 
William Tell. Browere saw the performance, and was so struck 
with the personality of the young actor that he asked permission 
to take his mask. Forrest consented, but was so afraid the ma- 
terial of the mould might cling to his hair, that he insisted upon 
wearing a skull-cap during the operation. Some faces change 
so much from youth to age that it is difficult, if not impossible, 
to trace any resemblance of the beginning in the end. But 
the characteristics of feature and expression in Browere's bust 
of Forrest are also to be found in his latest photographs. 

The tragedian was born in old Southwark, Philadelphia, 
March 9, 1806, and was "stage struck" almost from infancy, 
playing girl's parts when only twelve years old. In his fif- 
teenth year he made his debut at the Walnut Street theatre, 
Philadelphia, as young Norval 'in the tragedy of" Douglas " • and 
before he was twenty-one had gained considerable reputation 
and had played Othello before a New York audience. From 
this time he enjoyed a vacillating reputation, but was always 
the stage idol of the masses, while his intense personality kept 
him from appealing to the refinements of intellect. He died 
at Philadelphia, December 12, 1872, leaving his fortune, books 
and paintings to a home for aged actors to be called the For- 
rest Home ; but his estate was largely crippled by claims for 
unpaid alimony due to his divorced wife, so the home is not 
exactly what Forrest intended that it should be. 


Martin Van Buren 

)HE latest work that we have from the hand of 
Browere, is the bust from the life mask of 
" the Little Magician," as Martin Van Buren 
was called, made in 1833, the year before 
Browere's death. Van Buren was then in his 
fifty-first year, and he lived until July 24, 1862. His life 
covered a longer era and his career witnessed greater changes in 
national life than those of any other man who has occupied 
the presidential chair. He was born and died in Kinderhook, 
Columbia county, New York; studied law with William P. 
Van Ness, the friend of Burr ; and was admitted to the bar on 
attaining his majority. He was fitted by taste and tempera- 
ment for politics, and politics were fitted for him. 

As early as his eighteenth year, before he had a vote, Van 

Buren was chosen to take part in a local nominating conven- 


■ Age 51 

Life Masks 105 

tion ; and as soon as he could act, as well as speak, he became 
an ardent adherent of the Jeffersonian democracy. His first 
office was surrogate of his native county, which place he held 
for five years ; and when, in 1 8 1 1, the proposed recharter of the 
United States Bank was the leading question of Federal poli- 
tics, Van Buren took an active part against the measure. The 
following year he was elected to the Senate of New York, and 
supported President Madison and the War with England, 
drawing up the resolution of thanks, voted by the legislature, 
to General Jackson for his victory at New Orleans. 

In 1 8 1 5, Van Buren became Attorney-General of New 
York, from which office he was removed four years later, 
owing to his refusal to adhere to De Witt Clinton, whose 
policy, excepting as regarded the canal, he did not approve. 
The politics of New York were in a most feverish and topsy- 
turvy state, and the many factions could not combine to elect 
a United States senator in 181 8-19, until Van Buren, by his 
moderation and his genius for political organization, brought 
about order and harmony, and Rufus King, a political oppo- 
nent of Van Buren, was chosen to the high office. Two 
years later Van Buren was rewarded by being also sent to the 
Senate, and about the same time was chosen delegate to the 
convention which reviewed the Constitution of New York. 
In this body he sought to limit the elective franchise to 
householders, that this invaluable right of citizenship might 

106 Life Masks 

not be cheapened and the rural districts overborne by the 
cities. Unfortunately he was in the minority, or such a benefi- 
cent provision might have spread over the length and breadth 
of the land, so that the elective franchise would have retained 
the value of its high prerogative, and not become the valueless 
and unwieldy burden that it now is. Van Buren also opposed 
an elective judiciary, in both of which positions he was in 
opposition to his own party. 

In the United States Senate he was for many years chairman 
of the Judiciary Committee, and, on the Florida territorial bill 
voted against the increase of slavery. He was a strict con- 
structionist of the Constitution, recognizing that as the only 
safe canon of interpretation for a fundamental law; and he 
had pronounced views in favor of State rights and against the 
power of the United States Supreme Court, to overthrow State 
laws, believing this contrary to the provision of the Constitu- 
tion insuring the inviolability of contracts. 

In 1828 he was called from the Senate to the gubernatorial 
chair of New York, and, supporting Jackson for the Presi- 
dency, was made by him Secretary of State, which office he 
resigned to accept the English mission ; but, by the opposition 
of John C. Calhoun, he was not confirmed. This discreditable 
action increased Van Buren's popularity, and he succeeded Cal- 
houn as Vice-President for Jackson's second term, soon being 
regarded as the lineal successor to the Presidency. He was 

Life Masks 107 

elected, over Harrison and over Webster, pledged to oppose 
any interference with slavery in the slave States. The ruling 
act of his administration was one for the lasting benefit of the 
nation, which never should be forgotten. In his first message 
to Congress he deprecated the deposit of public moneys in 
private banks, which had followed Jackson's removal of the 
deposits from the United States Bank, and urged an indepen- 
dent treasury for the safe-keeping and disbursements of the 
public money ; but it was not until near the close of his 
administration that he secured congressional assent to the 
measure. This has been far-reaching in its beneficial effects, 
and too much honor cannot be accorded Van Buren, for his 
action in the matter, which has saved the treasury from great 
financial disruptions. Notwithstanding this, his administration 
went down in a cloud, and he was overwhelmingly defeated 
for a second term. 

Van Buren was opposed to the extension of slavery, but on 
all other points was an uncompromising Democrat. On this 
platform he was again nominated for the Presidency, in 1848, 
with Charles Francis Adams as Vice-President. The result 
of his candidature was the defeat of General Cass, the regular 
Democratic nominee, and the election of General Taylor. 
After this he retired from public life and devoted his time to 
the writing of his " Inquiry into the Origin and Course of 
Political Parties in the United States," a work which has been 

108 Life Masks 

called more an apology than a history. When the Civil War 
came upon the nation, Van Buren gave zealous support to the 
National Government. He was an intense partisan, masterful 
in leadership, reducing politics to a fine art. It has been well 
said that, " combining the statesman's foresight with the poli- 
tician's tact, he showed his sagacity, rather by seeking a 
majority for his views than by following the views of a ma- 
jority." He was far from being a demagogue, and he was 
frequently found fighting on the unpopular side. His convic- 
tions were strong, and he adhered to them with tenacity. 
While from peculiar circumstances his public career has been 
the subject of much partisan denunciation, he is entitled, both 
for activity and ability, to a higher niche in the temple of 
fame than is commonly accorded him. Van Buren was small 
in stature and of blond coloring. The physiognomist would 
accord to him penetration, quickness of apprehension and 
benevolence of disposition, while the phrenologist would add 
unusual reflective faculties, firmness and caution. 


Death Mask of yames Monroe 

HE masks that Browere made from the sub- 
ject in full life, must not be confused in any 
sense with the more common mask made after 
death. This confusion could not occur with 
any one who has had an opportunity to observe 
Browere's work or to make comparison with the reproductions 
in this book; but persons not familiar with these portrait busts, 
and having only some knowledge of masks made after death, 
or of such life masks as Clark Mills made, — which are thor- 
oughly death-like in their character, — might easily fall into 
such an error, and, looking upon the latter as repulsive and 
worthless as portraiture, give no heed to the different character 
and true value of Browere's living likenesses. 

Mr. Laurence Hutton, in his very curious and interesting 

volume entitled "Portraits in Plaster," says: "The value of a 


no Life Masks 

plaster cast as a portrait of the dead or living face cannot for 
a moment be questioned. It must of necessity be absolutely 
true to nature. It cannot flatter; it cannot caricature. It 
shows the subject as he was, not only as others saw him in the 
actual flesh, but as he saw himself. And in the case of a 
death mask particularly, it shows the subject often as he per- 
mitted no one but himself to see himself. He does not pose ; 
he does not 'try to look pleasant.' In his mask he is seen, 
as it were, with his mask off." 

I do not quote these words, of my accomplished friend Mr. 
Hutton, simply for the purpose of combating them, but to 
show how differently two, perfectly sincere, honest delvers 
after historic truth, can see the same thing. Having made 
portraiture my study for many years, and thus having in my 
mind's eye, indelibly fixed, the faces of legions of public men, 
I have yet to see a death mask that I could recognize at sight; 
many I could recall when told whose masks they were, but 
more yet have, to my vision, no resemblance whatever to the 
living man. Mr. Story, the eminent American sculptor but 
recently deceased, recognized how untrustworthy even life 
masks are as portraits. In speaking of what is claimed to 
be Houdon's original mask of Washington, which Mr. Story 
owned, he wrote: "Indeed, a mask from the living face, 
though it repeats exactly the true forms of the original, lacks 
the spirit and expression of the real person." So true is this, 

Life Masks 1 1 1 

that when Mr. St. Gaudens first saw Clark Mills's life mask of 
President Lincoln, he insisted that it was a death mask; for, 
without "the spirit and expression," where can the likeness be? 
As Sir Joshua Reynolds says in one of his Discourses: "In 
portraits, the grace and, we may add, the likeness consists 
more in taking the general air than in observing the exact 
similitude of every feature." In photography we have " the 
exact similitude of every feature," yet how often are photo- 
graphs bad likenesses, because they lack "the spirit and ex- 
pression" ! 

While it is possible to preserve "the spirit and expression " 
as well as to give "the exact similitude of every feature" in a 
life mask, as exemplified in the marvellous work of Browere, 
it is impossible in a death mask, for these evanescent qualities 
are then gone. I am not quite certain that even "the exact 
similitude of every feature" is preserved in a death mask; cer- 
tainly the natural relation of one feature to another is not. 
The death mask may, to a degree, be a correct reproduction 
of the bony structure, but only to a limited degree as it was in 
nature, for the obvious reason that the ligaments, holding the 
sections of bone together in their proper places, become re- 
laxed with dissolution, and the bones lose their exact positions, 
which condition even the slight weight of the plaster in- 

Masks, too, will sometimes approach caricature, if they will 

ii2 Life Masks 

not flatter, for they will reproduce peculiarities of formation 
which may not be observable superficially. This view is em- 
phasized by Lavater in his "Physiognomy," as quoted by Mr. 
Hutton. Lavater writes: "The dead and the impressions of 
the dead, taken in plaster, are not less worthy of observation 
[than the living faces]. The settled features are much more 
prominent than in the living and in the sleeping. What life 
makes fugitive, death arrests. What was undefinable, is de- 
fined. All is reduced to its proper level; each trait is in its 
exact proportion, unless excruciating disease or accident have 
preceded death." This is undoubtedly true from the point of 
view of the physiognomist, and it is his much desired vantage- 
ground, for his only object is to read the features laid bare. 

From Browere's hand we have but one death mask, and 
although it is open to much of the objection urged against 
death masks generally, it is superior to any other death mask 
I have ever seen. It is difficult to believe it was made after 
life was gone, so vibrant with life it seems. It possesses more 
living, breathing qualities than the life masks made by other 
men. If any proof were needed of the inestimable value of 
Browere's lost process for making masks, it can be found in 
the quality of this death mask of James Monroe. 

Monroe's name is perhaps more familiarly known to the 
public than that of any other President, save Washington and 
Lincoln, owing to its association with the doctrine, which he 


Life Masks 1 1 3 

promulgated, of non-interference on the western hemisphere by 
European nations, known as the "Monroe Doctrine." He was 
the fourth of the seven Virginian Presidents, and left William 
and Mary College, when only eighteen, as a lieutenant in Hugh 
Mercer's regiment, to join Washington's army. He served 
throughout the Revolutionary War, having been wounded 
at Trenton, and was present at Monmouth, Brandywine, and 
Germantown. In 1782 he took his seat in the Assembly 
of Virginia, and later was a delegate to Congress. Monroe 
took an active part in the controversy relative to the settlement 
of the Northwest Territory, which was quieted only by the Or- 
dinance of 1787; and although he had a hand in originating 
the convention to frame a constitution for the General Govern- 
ment, he was not a member of it, and opposed the ratification 
of its work. 

He was elected to the Senate of the United States in 1790, 
and held the office until he was sent as minister to France, 
four years later. He was a bitter anti-Federalist and oppo- 
nent of the administration of Washington, so that his appoint- 
ment to France came as a great surprise; and his action in 
recognizing the Republic, was an even greater surprise to his 
home government. For this he was reprimanded, and on his 
return published a defence of his conduct. He was Governor 
of Virginia, from 1797 to ! 802, and returned to France as 
special envoy to negotiate with Napoleon the purchase of 

114 Life Masks 

Louisiana. He was again Governor of Virginia, but resigned 
to accept the portfolio of state in Madison's cabinet, which 
was the stepping-stone to the succession in the Presidency. 
This high office he held for two terms, and for the last term 
there was only one electoral vote cast against him. It was in 
the second year of his second term, 1823, that he enunciated 
the famous Monroe Doctrine of " Hands off!" contained in 
two brief paragraphs in his annual message, which doctrine is 
logically nullified by the present foreign policy of the country. 

Monroe's administration has been designated " the Era of 
Good Feeling," and he should always be remembered as an 
upright and honest politician. As is too often the case with 
men who give their best years to the public service, his latter 
days were burdened by intense poverty, and he died in New 
York, July 4, 1 8 3 1 , almost in want. 

In person Monroe was tall, well formed, and with a fair 
complexion and blue eyes. The well-known portraits of him, 
by Stuart and by Vanderlyn, fail to bestow any signs of recog- 
nition upon Browere's death mask; but it is true these two 
portraits were painted a score and more years before Monroe's 
death. While, as has been said, it is far more life-like than 
many life casts, its reproduction only serves to emphasize my 
views as to the little value of death masks as portraits. 

Addendum to Chapter VIII 

Since this chapter went to press there has been published 
Roland's "Life of Charles Carroll of Carrollton," and upon 
page 342, of Volume II, there appears the following letter 
from Charles Carroll, upon his bust, by Browere, which is too 
important not to be given a place here: 

DOUGHOREGAN MANOR, July 29, 1 826. 


Mr. Browere has produced and read to me several letters 
from sundry most respectable personages ; on their recommen- 
dation and at his request I sat to him to take my bust. He 
has taken it, and in my opinion and that of my family, and of 
all who have seen it, the resemblance is most striking. The 
operation from its commencement to its completion was per- 
formed in two hours, with very little inconvenience and no 
pain to myself. This bust Mr. Browere contemplates placing, 
with many others, in a national gallery of busts. That his 


1 1 6 Addendum 

efforts may be crowned with success is my earnest wish. That 
his talents and genius deserve it I have no hesitation in pro- 
nouncing. I remain, with great respect, Sir, your most humble 


Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 

To Archibald Robertson, Esq^ 

In "Niles's Register" for August 12, 1826, (Volume XXX, 
page 411,) is given an account of this bust and its public ex- 
hibition at the Exchange in Baltimore. 


Adams Family, 50 

C. F. Mask by Browere, 17 

Minister to England, 51, 55 

Letter to Browere, 54 

Birth and death, 55 

Services to his country, 55 

Nominated for Vice-President, 107 
John. Mask by Browere, 17 

Minister to England, 51 

Birth and death, 51 

Browere visits him, 51 
Makes mask, 52 

Certificate to Browere, 52 

Stuart's portrait of, 52 

Mentioned, 19, 43, 46 
J. Q;. Mask by Browere, 17, 54 

Minister to England, 51 

And Gilbert Stuart, 53 

Birth and death, 54 

Unpopular, 55 

Supported by Clay, 75 
T. B., certificate to Browere, 52 
Alexander, Cosmo. Instructed Stuart, 81 
Who he was, 81 
Took Stuart to Scotland, 81 
Death of, 81 
Alexander the Great, 3 
Andre, John. Masks of captors of, 1 5 
Personality, 30 
Case an aggravated one, 30 
Puerile plea, 30 

Suffered justly, 30 

Mentioned, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33 
Antagonism between art factions, 25 
Anthony, Elizabeth, mother of Gilbert 

Stuart, 80 
Architecture subordinate to Sculpture, 2 
Arnold, B., mentioned, 28, 30 
Art in America influenced by foreigners, 10 

Public patronage of, 17 

Protection of works of, 1 7 

Bainbridge, W., exploits in war of 181 2, 

Barbour, P. P., mask by Browere, 17 
Barre, Isaac, portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Beauty, the Greek idea of, 2 
Berkhoven, Adam, ancestor of Browere, 

Bogardus, Annetje, ancestor of Browere, 13 

Edward, ancestor of Browere, 1 3 
Booth, Edwin, rival of Forrest, 102 
Bottari, G., authority, 3 
Boydell, J., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 

Shakespeare Gallery, 89 
Brouwer, Adam, ancestor of Browere, 1 3 
Jacob Adam, ancestor of Browere, 1 3 
Browere, Jacob, father of J. H. I. Brow- 
ere, 1 2 
A. D. O. Birth and death, 26 
Gains prizes, 26, 27 
His paintings, 27 




Visits California, 27 
Added draperies to busts, 27 
Preserved busts, 27 
J. H. I., 3, 4, 10 

Birth, parentage, and death, 1 2, 1 3 

Ancestry, 1 3 

At Columbia College, 13 

Marriage, I 3 

Pupil of A. Robertson, 1 3 

Travels abroad, 14 

Bust of A. Hamilton, 14 

Experiments making masks, 1 5 

First life mask, 1 5 

Mask of Pierrepont Edwards, 1 5 

Masks of the captors of Andre, 1 5 

Exhibits at Academy of Fine Arts, 15 

Mask of La Fayette, 16 

Writes to Madison, 16, 17 

Costs of making masks, 16 

List of masks by, 17 

Disheartened, 1 8 

His process, 1 8 

Opposition to his work, 1 8 

Treatment of Jefferson, 1 8 

Method without discomfort, 19 

Letter to Trumbull, 19 

Kept out of Academy of Design, 20 

Remark on Dunlap, 21 

Letter to American Academy, 21 

Death-bed directions, 25 

Exhibition of busts, 25 

Nature of work, 25 

Compared with Clark Mills, 26 

Mask of John Paulding, 32 

Isaac Van Wart, 34 

David Williams, 35 
Suffocation of Jefferson by, 36 
Discovery of busts, 38 
Visits Monticello, 39 
Mask of Jefferson, 39 
Certificate from Jefferson to, 40 
Newspaper attack on, 41 
Letters to Jefferson, 42, 45 

M. M. Noah, 42 
Whole-length statue of Jefferson, 43, 

45. 4 6 

Letter from Jefferson, 44 

De Witt Clinton congratulates, 47 

Visits John Adams, 51 

Mask of John Adams, 52 

Certificate from John Adams, 52 

Mask of J. Qi Adams, 54 

C. F, Adams, 55 
Introduced to Madison, 57 
Masks of the Madisons, 59 
Mask of Charles Carroll, 61, 115 
Letter from S. L. Mitchill, 62 
His workshop, Broadway, 64 
Mask of La Fayette, 66 
Letter from E. W. King, 66 
Mask of Clinton, 71 
Letter from T. A. Emmet, 71 
Mask of H. Clay, 73 
Encouraged by Stuart, 76 
Certificate from Stuart, 77 
Mask of D. Porter, 95 
Material used, 96 
Mask of R. Rush, 99 

E. Forrest, 103 

M. Van Buren, 104 
Death mask of J. Monroe, 112 
Brown, J. Mask by Browere, 17 

Letter to Madison, 57 
Buchan, Earl of (David Stuart), 13 

Calhoun, J. C, opposes Van Buren, 106 
Captors of Andre. Characters attacked, 29 

Vindicated, 30, 3 1 
Carroll, C. Mask by Browere, 17 

Reason of his signature, 60 

Personal description, 6 1 

Granddaughters marry noblemen, 61 

Letter on Browere' s bust, 115 

Mentioned, 19, 46 
Cass, L., defeated for President, 107 
Casts, invention of making life, 3 
Caton, Mrs., daughter of C. Carroll, 61 
Ceracchi, G., influence on American art, 

1 1 
Chalmers, G., a Scotch painter, 82 
Chambers, G., meant for Chalmers, 82 
Christ Church, Philadelphia, 5 



Clay, H. Mask by Browere, 17, 73 

Personal appearance, 74 

Birth and death, 74 

Duel with H. Marshall, 74 

His ambition, 75 
Cleveland, Mrs. Grover, her attractive- 
ness, 59 
Clinton, De W. Mask by Browere, 17 

Certifies to Browere's busts, 66, 71 

Woodworth's lines on bust of, 70 

A politician, 71 

Opposed by Van Buren, 105 
Columbian Academy, New York, 14 
Cooper, T., mask by Browere, 17 
Copley, J. S., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Cromwell, O., 7 

Cruikshank, W., lectures on anatomy, 85 
Cummings, T. S., 14, 25 
Cushing, W. B., exploit in the Civil 
War, 93 

Decatur, S., exploit in war with Tripoli, 

Delavan, General, 35 
Derrick, Eliza, marries Browere, 1 3 
Dewey, G., exploits in war with Spain, 

Dixey, J., sculptor, 1 1 
Donatello, 3 
Duane, W., libel on Governor McKean, 

Dunlap, W., unreliability of, 20 
Durand, J., memoir of Trumbull, 25 

Earlom, R., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Eckstein, J., sculptor, 11 
Edwards, P., mask by Browere, 15 
Emmet, T. A. Mask by Browere, 17 

Letter to Browere, 71,72 
Encyclopasdia Britannica on Stuart, 92 

Facius, J. G., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Farragut, D. G., exploits in the Civil 

War, 93 
Forrest, E. Mask by Browere, 17, 102 
As William Tell, 102 

Birth and death, 103 
Fothergill, A., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Franklin, B. Friend of P. Wright, 6 

Profile by P. Wright, 6 
Frazee, J., not first American sculptor, 7, 

Frothingham, J., artist, 23 

Gainsborough, T., credited with Stuart's 
work, 87 

Paints portrait with Stuart, 88 

Portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Gait's statue of T. Jefferson, 48 
Gendon, Ann C, mother of Browere, \z 
George III, leaden statue of, 5 
Gilpin, H. D., letter from Madison, 37 
Gladstone, W. E., the Great Commoner, 

Graham, J. A., certifies to La Fayette's 

bust, 68 
Grant, W., portrait of, by Stuart, 86 

Exhibited, 87 
Greek Art. Beginnings of, 2 
Perfection of, 2 
Characteristics of, 2 

Hall, J., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Hamilton, A. Bust by Browere, 14 

Miniature by Robertson, 14 

On captors of Andre, 30 
Heath, J., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Higginson, T. W., paper on Jane Stuart, 

Hilson, T., mask by Browere, 17 
History, method of writing, 48 
Hone, P., mask by Browere, 17 
Hoppner, J., marries daughter of P. 
Wright, 6 
Instructs J. Wright, 9 
Hosack, D., mask by Browere, 17 
Houdon, J. A. Influence on American 
art, 1 1 
Method of making mask, 41 
Mask of Washington, 110 
Hubard Gallery, Stuart's bust at, 77 
Hull, I., exploits in war of 1 81 2, 93 



Humphrey, O., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Hutton, L. Portraits in plaster, 38 

Estimate of masks, 109 

Views discussed, 110 

Iconoclasm regarding historic characters, 

Inman, H., painter, 14 
Irving, W., 33, 34 

Jackson, A., opposed by Clay, 75 
Jamesone, G., ancestor of Alexander, 81 
Jans, Anneke, ancestress of Browere, 1 3 
Jefferson, T. Mask by Browere, 1 7 

Treatment by Browere, 1 8 

Randall's story of suffocation, 36 

Personal appearance, 37 

Bust by Browere, 37 

Its existence and discovery, 37, 38 

Consents to have bust made, 38 

Browere makes mask, 39 

Certificate to making of mask, 40 

Letter to Madison, 41 
From Browere, 42 

Whole-length statue by Browere, 43 

Letter to Browere, 44 

Gait's statue of, 48 

Coincidences in life of, 5 1 
Jervis, Sir John, portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Johnson, E., portrait of "Dolly" Madi- 
son, 59 
Jones, J. P., exploits in Revolutionary 

War, 93 
Jouett, J. H., exploits in Civil War, 93 

King, D., buys Browere's bust of Stuart, 79 
E. W., letter to Browere, 66 
R., elected senator, 105 

La Fayette. Bust of, bv Rush, 9 
Mask of, by Browere, 16, 64, 66 
Last visit to United States, 63 
Browere's mask injured, 64 
Second mask made, 66 

Latrobe, B. H., on William Rush, 8 
J. H. B., appearance of C. Carroll, 61 

Laurens, H., dress of, 45 

J., letter to, 28 
Lavater, J. C, on death masks, 112 
Lawrence, T., Stuart's reason for leaving 

England, 91 
Leeds, Duchess of, granddaughter of C. 

Carroll, 61 
Leinster, Duke of, portrait of, by Stuart, 

Leonardo da Vinci, pupil of Verocchio, 3 
Lincoln, A., President of the United 
States, 7 
R., mother of W. Rush, 7 
Lovell, P., marries J. Wright, 5 
Lysippus, sculptor, 3 
Lysistratus invents making life casts, 3 

Macomb, A., mask of, by Browere, 17 
McKean, T., libelled by Duane, 98 
Madison, D. Mask of, by Browere, 17, 59 
Widow of J. Todd, 56 
Browere's child named for, 58 
Beauty overestimated, 59 
Painted by Stuart, 59 
Drawn by Johnson, 59 
Attractiveness, 59 
J. Mask by Browere, 17, 59 
Letter to H. D. Gilpin, 37 
Papers in State Department, 37 
Intercedes for Browere, 38 
Certifies to Jefferson's bust, 40 
Letter to, from Jefferson, 41 

Browere, 46 
Character, 56 
Browere introduced to, 57 
Letter to, from J. Brown, 57 
Certifies to his bust, 58 
Manchester, Duke of, portrait of, by Stu- 
art, 89 
Marshall, H., duel with H. Clay, 74 
Mills, C. Mentioned, 26, 36 

His masks, 109, 1 1 1 
Miniature-painting, treatise on, 14 
Mitchill, S. L. Mask of, by Browere, 

Letter to Browere, 62 



Monroe, J. In Washington's army, 113 

Wounded at Trenton, 113 

Delegate to Congress, 1 1 3 

Elected to Senate, 113 

Minister to France, 113 

Opposed Washington, 113 

Governor of Virginia, 113, 114 

President, 114 

His doctrine, 114 

His administration, 1 14 

Personal appearance, 114 

Dies poor, 1 14 
Morse, S. F. B. Portrait of La Fayette 
by, 67 

Inventor of telegraph, 68 

Certifies to bust of La Fayette, 68 
Morton, J. Certifies to bust of La Fayette, 

Mott, V., mask by Browere, 17 

Newspapers' attack on Browere, 41 
Noah, M. M. Mask of, by Browere, 17 

Mentioned, 42, 61, 96 
Northumberland, Duke of, portrait of, by 
Stuart, 89 

Parthenon, frieze of the, 3 
Paulding, H., son of John Paulding, 33 
J. K., nephew of John Paulding, 33 
J. Mask by Browere, 15, 17, 32 
Captor of Andre, 28, 31 
Social position, 32 
Monument, 33 
L., grandson of John Paulding, 33 
W., brother of John Paulding, 3Z 
W. Nephew of John Paulding, 33 
Mayor of New York, 33 
Peak, R. Portraits of La Fayette, 67 
Portraits of Washington, 67 
Certifies to La Fayette's bust, 67 
Pericles, age of, 2 
Perry, O. H., exploits in war of 181 2, 


Perugini, pupil of Verocchio, 3 

Pheidias, sculptor, 2, 3 

Pitt, W., the Great Commoner, 73 

Plastic Art. What it is, 1 

Its origin, 1 

Its earliest form, I 

Associated with worship, 1 
Architecture, 2 

Among the Greeks, 2 

Development in United States, 4 
Pliny, on Inventor of Masks, 3 
Poore, B. P., plagiarizes Randall, 36 
Porter, D. Mask of, by Browere, 17, 95 

Three with same name, 94 

Distinguished in navy, 94 

Commands Essex, 94 

Captures Alert, 94 

Sails around Cape Horn, 95 

Surrenders the Essex, 95 

Retires from navy, 95 

Letter to Noah, 96 
Pratt, E. Daughter of P. Wright, 6 

Models profiles in wax, 6 
Preble, E., exploits in war with Tripoli, 

Ouincy Family, 50 
Josiah, Jr., 50 
J., President of Harvard, 


Randall, H. S. Story of Jefferson's suffo- 
cation, 36 

Method of writing history, 37 

Statement refuted, 38 

Criticized, 48 
Raeburn, H., credited with picture by 

Stuart, 87 
Randolph, Misses, alarmed, 39 

Master, peeping, 39 
Redwood Library. Stuart's bust at, 76 

Stuart's self-portrait at, 86 
Reynolds, J. Discourses on Painting, 85 

Stuart paints portrait, 85, 89 

On portraits, 1 1 1 
Riker, R., member Com. of Councils, 64 
Robertson, Alexander, 13 

Andrew, 14 

Archibald, instructor of Browere, 1 3 
Treatise on miniature-painting, 14 

I 22 


Card from, I 5 
Emily, life of A. Robertson, 14 
Romney, G., credited with picture by 

Stuart, 88 
Royal Academy. Stuart pupil at, 85 

Stuart exhibits at, 85, 86 
Rush, B., father of R. Rush, 94 
J., screed on newspapers, 41 
Joseph, father of W. Rush, 7 

Married R. Lincoln, 7 
R. Mask of, by Browere, 17, 99 
Attorney-General, 98 
Secretary of State, 99 
Minister to England, 99 
Secretary of Treasury, 99 
Plan for Smithsonian Institution, 100 
Fine literary sense, 102 
W. First American Sculptor, 7 
Ancestry, 7 
Career, 8 

Figureheads for ships, 8 
Statue of Washington, 9 
Bust of La Fayette, 9 
Kinsman of R. Rush, 98 

St. Gaudens, A., estimate of masks, 11 1 
Sampson, W. T., exploits in war with 

Spain, 94 
Sculpture, the daughter of Architecture, 2 
Sharp, W., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Shee, M. A., credited with picture by 

Stuart, 88 
Smithson, J. Legacy to United States, 99 

Who he was, 99 
Southard, S. L., mask of, by Browere, 17 
Stafford, Lady, granddaughter of C. Car- 
roll, 61 
Stewart, C. Exploits in war of 1 8 1 2, 93 
G. Father of the painter, 79 
Importance of name, 80 
Goes to Nova Scotia, 82 
Stone, W. L., mask of, by Browere, 17 
Story, W. W., estimate of masks, 110 
Stuart, G. Mask of, by Browere, 17, 76 
Portrait of John Adams, 53 
"Dolly" Madison, 59 

Encourages Browere, 76 
Bust in Redwood Library, 76, 79 
Certificate to Browere, 77 
Newspapers on bust of, 77, 78 
Eminence in art, 78 
Place of birth, 79 
Naming of, 80 
Education, 80, 81 
Earliest pictures, 80, 81 
Goes to Scotland, 81 
Not at University of Glasgow, 81 
Returns to America, 82, 91 
Goes to England, 82 
Becomes organist, 83 
Apprenticed to West, 84, 85 
Exhibits at Royal Academy, 85, 86 
Paints many portraits, 85, 86, 89 
Portrait of W. Grant, 87 
Prices for portraits, 88 
Prodigality and poverty, 90, 91 
Personal appearance. 90 
Marries Miss Coates, 90 
Desire to paint Washington, 91 
Lawrence's opinion, 91 
Paints portraits of Washington, 91 
Master in portraiture, 92 
Encyclopedia Britannica upon, 92 
Two art periods, 92 
Buried in Potter's Field, 92 
J. Daughter of G. Stuart, 78 
Appreciates Browere's work, 78 
"One of Thackeray's Women," 79 

Tallmadge, B., attacks character of Andre's 

captors, 29 
Taylor, Z., elected President, 107 
Traditions, no historical value, 81 
Trumbull, J. Endorsement on Browere's 
letter, 20 
Mentioned, 18, 23 
Truxtun, T. Exploits in war with France, 


Captures V Insurgente, 94 

Van Buren, M. Mask of, by Browere, 
17, 104 



Birth and death, 104 

Attorney-General, 105 

Governor of New York, 106 

Vice-President, 106 

Elected President, 107 

Advocates National Treasury, 107 

Opposes extension of slavery, 107 

Personal appearance, 108 
Van Cortland, P., mask of, by Browere, I 7 
Vanderlyn, J., mentioned, 14, 23 
Van Ness, W. P., mentioned, 104 
Vanuxem, L., posed for W. Rush, 9 
Van Wart, A., brother of I. Van Wart, 

H., marries Irving' s sister, 34 
I. Mask of, by Browere, 17, 34 
Birth and death, 33 
Youngest of captors, 34 
Social position, 34 
Vasari, G. , authority, 3 
Verocchio, A., made life masks, 3 
Virginia, University of, 47 

Walpole, R., his doctrine, 30 
Ward, W., mezzotint portrait by, 88 
Washington, G. Statue of, by W. Rush, 9 
Portrait of, by J. Wright, 9 
Cast of, by J. Wright, 10 
Portrait of, by Robertson, 13 

Judgment on captors of Andre, 3 1 
Portraits of, by Stuart, 91 
Mask of, by Houdon, no 
Waterhouse, B., chum of G. Stuart, 85 
Webster, D., admired, 73 
Wellesley, Marchioness of, granddaughter 

of C. Carroll, 61 
West, B. Stuart apprenticed to, 84 
His art, 84 

Portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Williams, D., mask of, by Browere, 17, 35 
Birth and death, 34 
Sworn statement of capture, 34 
Monument to, 34 
Woodworth, S., lines on Clinton's bust, 

Woollett, W., portrait of, by Stuart, 89 
Wright, F. , mask of, by Browere, 17 
J. Son of Patience, 9 
Studies under West, 9 
Paints portrait of Washington, 9 
Makes cast of Washington, 10 
Bust of, by W. Rush, 10 
P. First American modeller, 5 
Conversational powers, 6 
Modelled Franklin's profile, 6 
Daughter of, marries J. Hoppner, 6 
Modelled statue of Chatham, 6 
Wyckoff, H. I., councilman, 64 



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